Making sense of DNA data and the origins of the Japanese | Heritage of Japan
Chinese, Japanese, Korean, what is the difference? The genetic difference between any of the three groups is less than 1% of their total. Genetic Evidence for an East Asian Origin of Domestic Dogs The origin of the domestic dog from wolves has been established, but the number of founding . while there was no significant difference between Southwest Asia and Europe. In an initial major study of dog and wolf mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) data (Vilà among East Asian dogs indicated an origin in Asia east of the Urals, The difference in genetic variation among regions is directly visible as a.
Mainstream archaeological evidence derived from palaeoethnobotanical investigations indicate that dry-land rice was introduced to Korea and Japan some time between and BC. The cultivation of rice in Korea and Japan during that time occurred on a small-scale, fields were impermanent plots, and evidence shows that in some cases domesticated and wild grains were planted together. The technological, subsistence, and social impact of rice and grain cultivation is not evident in archaeological data until after BC.
For example, intensive wet-paddy rice agriculture was introduced into Korea shortly before or during the Middle Mumun Pottery Period c.
The chart is pretty straightforward, though I would note most Chinese Americans have origins in South China, especially Fujian and the area around Canton. Taiwanese are mostly Fujianese by origin. Remember this chart is based on patterns of variation within the autosomal genome, and displays the two biggest components of variation which can be extracted out as independent dimensions.
The horizontal axis is somewhat suggestive to me, I have to wonder if the South Chinese, Koreans and Japanese are further to the left because they have all been subject to the expansion of rice farmersyears ago. Remember that the original Han Chinese culture in the Yellow River basin was based around millet dry farming, the addition of rice agriculture into the Han culture toolkit was an adoption from the indigenous peoples south of the Yangtze, many of whom were Sinicized and likely are the ancestors at least in part of the Chinese dialect groups.
Finally, one last comment about the idea that this was a male mediated migration. It could be that the original rice farmers who brought the lifestyle attained a relatively high status among the indigenous peoples whom they settled.
In this case one could imagine that the male newcomers could leverage their status into reproductive output to a far greater extent than the females of their group. If group A attains higher status than group B, then how would that benefit the men of A more than the women from a reproductive perspective?
Do you envision a situation where, as soon as a group A woman becomes pregnant, her husband sneaks off and impregnates a low-status group B woman? In the context of the explanation of the proverb, the women are always described as beautiful, whereas the men are described in Korean words that could be translated as charismatic, strong, impressive, assertive, etc. The proverb is taken to indicate where to find the ideal mates for each respective sex in Korea.
Also the Southern regions of the Korean peninsula traditionally have been and still are the agricultural centers of Korea.
Japanese wolf - Wikipedia
As you go North it becomes very mountainous rendering large scale agriculture difficult. Is there agreement on where rice cultivation started? AG Look at genetic map, no wonder northern Hans call their country as zhong guo central country. Middle kindom is kind of less accurate interpretation.
Making sense of DNA data and the origins of the Japanese
China is equivalent to a central european country to europe. Hm, Is Germany or Poland central? It touches eastern, western, northern, and if you include ethnically and historically German Austria southern Europe. He meant that they both maintained a certain amount of fierce cultural independence and proud distinctiveness from the rest of the country.
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Likewise there is a slight genetic difference between northern and southern Germans Nordic vs. Alpine sub-races and northern versus southern Han Chinese. In both cases the northerners are paler and taller. The Vietnamese cluster occupied a position mid-way between the Cambodian and CHB cluster, though closer to the macro-southeast Asian cluster particularly to the Dai ethnic group.
If you can suggest another terminology, it would be appreciated. Older paper, but still done in end ofthe same period as done on the paper using K SNPs. And the paper is 26 pages long, much much longer than the paper dealing with K SNPs. The C3c subclade is a secondary expansion that is rather recent about years old.
Also the phenotype resemblances between the Koreans and Mongols and Tungusic people is another factor that is not valid with the results in the study that used K SNPs. It is clear that dogs originated from wolves Clutton-Brock ; Lindblad-Toh et al.
Archaeological evidence indicates that domestic dogs existed by 11, years ago ya Davis and Valla ; Dayan ; Raisor earlier dates in Europe have been reported, but the evidence does not seem conclusive [ Wang and Tedford ], see Supplementary Material online for details. However, it has failed to tell where and at how many different places the dog originated, because of the difficulty in discriminating between small wolves and domestic dogs, and the large difference in amount of archaeological work and systematic surveys of animal materials in different parts of the world see Supplementary Material online for details.
The earliest reasonably firm archaeological evidence for dog Raisor is now at 11, ya in SW Asia Davis and Valla10, ya in Europe Chaix8, ya in America Morey and Wiantand 7, ya in China Underhill Also, genetic studies have failed to give definite answers about the time and place of origin. However, neither time nor place could be definitely established. Studies of ancient samples have shown that ancient and modern dogs share identical mtDNA haplotypes and that the American dogs originated from the Old World dog population Leonard et al.
Notably, in a recent study of African village dogs Boyko et al. Because neither the time nor exact geographical location for the dog origins was established in Savolainen et al.
Thus, there is no generally accepted picture of the time and place of origin, and the only geographical indication so far Savolainen et al. Consequently, the human culture that performed the wolf taming and the mechanisms by which the domestication took place remain unknown. Knowledge of the exact time and place of origin is necessary for identifying the related human culture. The timing is crucial also for understanding the mechanisms of wolf domestication, because the time of origin reflects the number of founder animals.
Korean genetic relationships - Gene Expression
Because the mutation rate is at most 1 substitution per 40, year for this region, the sequences in today's dogs would be largely identical to those of the wolf founders, in the case the dog originated 11, ya as indicated by archaeological data. Therefore, if some founder haplotypes from wolf differed by just one or two substitutions, they and their respective derived haplotypes would not have resolved into separate, identifiable, haplogroups by today, leaving it impossible to determine the number of founders see Supplementary Material online for a detailed discussion.
Accordingly, estimates of the time of domestication based on mtDNA CR data have, for a number of domestic animals, consistently given dates that are much earlier than indicated by the archaeological evidence Ho and Larsonand this can possibly be attributed to underestimation of the number of founders.Korean native dog breeds share genetic ties to wolves, coyotes
Therefore, analysis of a much larger part of the mtDNA genome is necessary for obtaining the resolution needed for identifying the number of founders and time of origin for dogs. Furthermore, incomplete sampling of dogs has so far hindered an exact determination of the region of origin of dogs.
For an effective intraspecific study, knowledge of the full extent of the global genetic diversity, as well as a detailed knowledge of key regional populations, is necessary.
Thus, in order to obtain conclusive information about the time and place of origin of dogs, and the number of founders, improvement of both phylogenetic resolution and phylogeographical fine mapping is necessary.