vation of dyadic interactions of buyers and sellers. buyer-seller dyad is not easy to investigate. .. versed for the communication competence measure. A survey of the research in this area reveals that the buyer-seller dyad is often viewed buyer-seller relationship have not built on previous models. This has led. achieve satisfactory relationships in cross-national buyer-seller dyads. .. relatively small size, traditionally been much more dependent on trading with other.
What do you understand by buyer seller dyads? Explain the different factors affecting the buyer seller dyads? Service selling aims to obtain sales from existing customers whose habits and patterns of thought are already conducive to such sales. Developmental selling aims to convert prospects into customers. In other words it seeks to create customers out of people who do not currently view salesperson company favorably and who likely are resistant to changing present sources of supply.
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Different sales positions require different amount and kinds of service and developmental selling. Mcmurry and Arnold classify positions on a spectrum ranging from the very simple to the highly complex. They categorize sales positions into three mutually exclusive groups each containing subgroups totaling to nine subgroups in all: Group A Service Selling 1. Delivery salesperson- Mainly engages in delivering the product; for example, persons delivering milk, bread or fuel oil.
Route or Merchandising salesperson- Operates as an order taker but works in the field-the soap or spice salesperson calling on retailers is typical. Group B Developmental Selling 6.
Creative salesperson of tangibles- for example, salespersons selling vacuum cleaners, automobiles, siding and encyclopedias. Creative salesperson of intangibles- for example, salespersons selling insurance, advertising services and educational programs.
Sales are consummated through rendering highly personalized services to key decision makers in customers organizations; for example, the salesperson who lands large orders for flour from baking companies by catering to key buyers interests in fishing, golfing ,blondes or the like.
What do you understand by personal selling in a management process? Explain the different selling situations encountered by the salesperson?
In a survey of marketing executives, 46 percent perceived selling as an art, 8 percent as a science and a 46 percent as an art evolving into a science. The fact that some as science and considers selling by some as art has produced two contrasting approaches to the theory of selling.
The first approach distilled the experiences of successful salespeople and to a lesser extent, advertising professionals. Many such persons succeeded because of their grasp of practical or learned through experience psychology and their ability to apply it in sales situations. There are four theories of selling: The AIDAS theory simply states that a prospect goes through five different stages before finally responding satisfactorily to our product.
Thus he should be led comfortably through all five stages. Implicit in this theory is the notion that the prospect goes through these five states consciously, so the sales presentation must lead the prospect through them in the right sequence if a sale is to result.
The goal is to put the prospect into a receptive state of mind. Attention The first few minutes of the interview are crucial.
Gratitude in buyer-seller relationships
The sales person has to have a reason, or an excuse, for conducting the interview. If the salesperson previously has made an appointment, this phase presents on problem, but experienced sales personnel say that even with an appointment, a salesperson must possess considerable mental alertness, and be a skilled conversationalist, to survive the start of the interview. The salesperson must establish good rapport at once. Favorable first impressions are assured by, among other things, proper attire, neatness, friendliness, and a genuine smile.
A good conversation opener causes the prospect to relax and sets the stage for the total presentation. Conversation openers that cannot be readily tied in with the reminder of the presentation should be avoided, for once the conversation starts to wander, great skill is required to return to the main theme.
Many techniques are used to gain interest. Some salespeople develop a contagious enthusiasm for the product or a sample. When the product is bulky or technical, sales portfolios, flipcharts, or other visual aids serve the same purpose. Throughout the interest phase, the hope is to search out the selling appeal that is most likely to be effective.
Sometimes, the prospect drops hints, which the salesperson then uses in selecting the best approach. To encourage hints by the prospect, some salespeople devise stratagems to elicit revealing question.
Others ask the prospect questions designed to clarify attitudes and feelings toward the product. The more experienced the salesperson, the more he or she has learned from interviews with similar prospects. But even experienced sales personal do considerable probing, usually of the question and answer variety, before identifying the strongest appeal.
The salesperson must keep the conversation running along the main line toward the sale. Obstacles must be faced and ways found to get around them. Action - Although there may be desire for the product, the customer might not act on it.
He might want to buy the product but he might NOT buy it. In such cases the customer needs to be induced. There are various ways to induce the customer such that he buys the product. It is important for the sales person to understand whether to directly induce the customer or whether to push subtle reminders that you are there for a sales call.
Both methods work, but the sales person needs to know your customer. Satisfaction After the customer has given the order, the salesperson should reassure the customer that the decision was correct. The customer should be left with the impression that the salesperson merely helped in deciding. Building satisfaction means thanking the customer for the order, and attending to such matters as making certain that the order is filled as written, and following up on promises made.
The order is the climax of the selling situation, so the possibility of an anticlimax should be avoided- customers sometimes unwell themselves and the salesperson should not linger too long. If the salesperson succeeds in securing the attention and gaining the interest of the prospect, and if the salesperson presents the proper stimuli or appeals, the desired response that is, the sale will result.
Furthermore, the more skilled the salesperson is in handling the set of circumstances, the more predictable is the response. The set of circumstances includes factors external and internal to the prospect.
But are least four factors internal to the prospect affect the response. These are the presence or absence of desires 1 to have a cup of coffee, 2 to have it now, 3 to go out, and 4 to go out with the salesperson.
Proponents of this theory tend to stress external factors and at the expense of internal factors. They seek selling appeals that evoke desired responses. Sales personnel who try to apply the theory experience difficulties traceable to internal factors in many selling situations, but the internal factors are not readily manipulated. This is a seller-oriented theory: This theory purports to answer the question: The buying formula is a schematic representation of a group of responses, arranged in psychological sequence.
The origin of this theory is obscure, but recognizable versions appear in a number of early books on advertising and selling by authors who had experiential knowledge of salesmanship. Several psychologists also advanced explanations similar to the buying formula. Reduced to their simplest elements, the mental processes involved in a purchase are: Need or problem Solution Purchase Because the outcome of a purchase affects the chance that a continuing relationship will develop between the buyer and the seller, and because nearly all sales organizations are interested in continuing relationships, it is necessary to add a fourth element.
The four elements then, are: Need or problem Solution Purchase Satisfaction Whenever a need is felt, or a problem recognized, the individual is conscious of a deficiency of satisfaction.
In the world of selling and buying, the solution will always be a product or service or both and they will belong to a potential seller. In buying anything, the purchaser proceeds mentally from need or problem top problem to product or service, to trade name, to purchase, and, upon using the product or service, he or she experience satisfaction or dissatisfaction.
Thus, when a definite buying habit has been established, the buying formula is: In many cases, an item viewed as adequate is also liked, and vice versa, but his is not always so. Some products and services that are quite adequate are not liked, and some things are liked and bought that are admittedly not as good as competing items.
Similar reasoning applies to trade names. Some sources of supply are both adequate and liked, others are adequate but not liked, still others are liked but patronized even though they are inadequate compared to competing sources. When a buying habit is being established, the buyer must know why the product or service is adequate solution to the need or problem, and why the trade name is the best one to buy. The buyers also must have a pleasant feeling toward the product or service and the trade name.
It may be said that: Developing new uses is comparable to selling to new uses is comparable to selling to new customers. Howard explains buying behavior in terms of the purchasing decision process, viewed as phases of the learning process. Four essential elements of the learning process included in the stimulus response, and reinforcement, described as follows: There are two kinds: Innate drives stem from the physiological needs, such as hunger, thirst, pain, cold, and sex.
Learned drives, such as striving for status or social approval, are acquired when paired with the satisfying of innate drives. Cues are weak stimuli that determine when the buyer will respond. Triggering cues influence the decision process for any given purchase.
No triggering cues influence the decision process but don not activate it, any may operate at any time even though the buyer is not contemplating a purchase. Such stimuli may come from advertising, conversations with other people including sales personneland so on. Response is what the buyer does. Howard incorporates these four elements into an equation: Thus, if any independent variable as zero value, B will also be zero and there is no response.
Each time there is a response- a purchase — in which satisfaction k is sufficient to yield a reward, predisposition p increases in value. In other words, when the satisfaction yields a reward, reinforcement occurs, and, technically, what is reinforced is the tendency to make a response in the future to the cue that immediately preceded the rewarded response.
After reinforcement, the probability increases that the buyer will the product or patronize the supplier the next time the cue appears- in other words, the buyer has learned. Buyer — Seller Dyad and Reinforcement 8 In the interactions of a salesperson and a buyer, each can display a type of behavior that is rewarding, that is reinforcing, to the other.
The salesperson provides the buyer with a product and the necessary information about it and its uses that the buyer needs; this satisfaction of the need is rewarding to the buyer, who, in turn, can reward the salesperson by buying the product.
Each can also reward the other by another type of behavior, that of providing social approval. The salesperson gives social approval to a buyer by displaying high regard with friendly greetings, warm conversation, praise, and the like. Gratitude has immense value to firms as customer gratitude is linked to increases in share of wallet, sales revenue, sales growth and customer commitment.
Additionally, expressions of gratitude can be beneficial for both buyers and sellers as it creates a boost in interpersonal connection. Previous research is relatively silent on the role of salesperson gratitude in buyer-seller relationships, focusing, instead, primarily on the benefits of customer gratitude. What is particularly unknown is whether salesperson gratitude motivates behavior that is beneficial to firms.
Therefore, to fill these gaps in the sales literature, we construct and test a conceptual model centered on salesperson gratitude and study its effect in the context of buyer-seller relationships, particularly its effects on buyers who will also be referred to as customers throughout this paper.
We aim to understand how salesperson gratitude contributes to customer commitment and customer gratitude. To do so, we focus on two types of customer-directed prosocial behavior: For our investigation, we define salesperson extra-role behaviors as actions that are considered favorable to customers and outside of the salesperson's role requirements.
For example, salespeople may share recommendations for local restaurants or referrals to other service providers outside the scope of their role as a salesperson in order to provide additional resources to customers. We characterize salesperson information sharing as an employee disclosing knowledge related to his or her firm and position to the customer.
Consistent with moral affect theory, the seminal theory in the psychology of gratitude, salesperson gratitude is characterized as a salesperson's feeling of thankfulness toward his or her customer.
Similarly, customer gratitude is a customer's feeling of thankfulness toward his or her salesperson. Our results show that salesperson gratitude impacts customer gratitude and customer commitment through the prosocial behaviors—information sharing and extra-role behaviors—that manifest as a result of the salesperson's gratitude toward the customer.
We also find a significant interaction between the length of the buyer-seller relationship and salesperson extra-role behaviors with respect to customer gratitude. This indicates that salesperson extra-role behaviors serve as a catalyst for propelling customer relationships forward and that salesperson information sharing serves as a tool to maintain the relationship over time.
Gratitude in buyer-seller relationships
Based on these findings, we recommend that salespeople become more aware of and adept at expressing gratitude by taking advantage of opportunities to foster relationships with buyers that are enhanced by expressions of gratitude. Additionally, something as simple as remembering to control facial expressions that may indicate your frustration or negativity can be very effective in managing the contagious effects of emotions.
Lastly, engage in extra-role behaviors with buyers to save time and resources by accelerating relationship-building. We conducted a dyadic investigation by surveying the salespeople and customers of a large B2B transportation logistics firm. We offered an email survey to the firm's active customers and received complete responses.
Following customer surveys, salespeople were surveyed about their respective responding customer. We received salespeople responses. We matched salesperson and customer data, yielding buyer-seller dyads. The salesperson survey measured salesperson gratitude, salesperson information sharing, seller dependence, interaction frequency, and experience. Customer surveys measured perceptions of salesperson extra-role behaviors and salesperson information sharing, customer gratitude, customer commitment to the salesperson, and relationship length.
Analysis of the direct effects reveals that salesperson gratitude has a positive effect on salesperson extra-role behaviors and salesperson information sharing. While both of these salesperson prosocial behaviors were found to positively affect customer gratitude, results show that salesperson extra-role behaviors act as a stronger driver. We also see that customer gratitude, in turn, positively impacts customer commitment.
Further analysis offers strong evidence that customer commitment is impacted by salesperson gratitude through salesperson behavior, including information sharing and extra-role behaviors that elicits customer gratitude. However, we find that the effect of salesperson extra-role behaviors on customer gratitude decreases as relationships age. That is, salesperson extra-role behaviors show the largest positive impact early in the buyer-seller relationship.