The Greek polis (article) | Classical Greece | Khan Academy
Sparta was a powerful city-state in ancient Greece. Sparta was ruled by a But Sparta was very different from the other Greek city-states. All citizens in ancient. Ancient Greece (Greek: Ἑλλάς, translit. Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek . Afterwards, Sparta and Athens promptly turned on each other, at which point Cleomenes I installed Isagoras In BC, the Ionian city states under Persian rule rebelled against the Persian-supported tyrants that ruled them . of a polis, a city-state, and other times preferred to (or were forced to) join connection between the ancient poleis with modern nations, and After the fall of Athens in B.C., Sparta began expanding to “all four points.
Greek colonies were not politically controlled by their founding cities, although they often retained religious and commercial links with them.
The emigration process also determined a long series of conflicts between the Greek cities of Sicily, especially Syracuseand the Carthaginians. This way Rome became the new dominant power against the fading strength of the Sicilian Greek cities and the Carthaginian supremacy in the region.
One year later the First Punic War erupted. In this period, there was huge economic development in Greece, and also in its overseas colonies which experienced a growth in commerce and manufacturing.
There was a great improvement in the living standards of the population. Some studies estimate that the average size of the Greek household, in the period from BC to BC, increased five times, which indicates[ citation needed ] a large increase in the average income of the population.
In the second half of the 6th century BC, Athens fell under the tyranny of Peisistratos and then of his sons Hippias and Hipparchos. However, in BC, at the instigation of the Athenian aristocrat Cleisthenesthe Spartan king Cleomenes I helped the Athenians overthrow the tyranny. Afterwards, Sparta and Athens promptly turned on each other, at which point Cleomenes I installed Isagoras as a pro-Spartan archon. Eager to prevent Athens from becoming a Spartan puppet, Cleisthenes responded by proposing to his fellow citizens that Athens undergo a revolution: So enthusiastically did the Athenians take to this idea that, having overthrown Isagoras and implemented Cleisthenes's reforms, they were easily able to repel a Spartan-led three-pronged invasion aimed at restoring Isagoras.
Classical Greece Main article: Classical Greece Early Athenian coin, depicting the head of Athena on the obverse and her owl on the reverse—5th century BC In BC, the Ionian city states under Persian rule rebelled against the Persian-supported tyrants that ruled them.
Comparing the Greek and Mesopotamian States – Rise of Civilization
Sparta was suspicious of the increasing Athenian power funded by the Delian League, and tensions rose when Sparta offered aid to reluctant members of the League to rebel against Athenian domination. These tensions were exacerbated inwhen Athens sent a force to aid Sparta in overcoming a helot revolt, but their aid was rejected by the Spartans.
In an alliance between Athens and Argos was defeated by Sparta at Mantinea. Another war of stalemates, it ended with the status quo restored, after the threat of Persian intervention on behalf of the Spartans.
The Spartan hegemony lasted another 16 years, until, when attempting to impose their will on the Thebans, the Spartans were defeated at Leuctra in BC. The Theban general Epaminondas then led Theban troops into the Peloponnese, whereupon other city-states defected from the Spartan cause. The Thebans were thus able to march into Messenia and free the population. Deprived of land and its serfs, Sparta declined to a second-rank power. The Theban hegemony thus established was short-lived; at the Battle of Mantinea in BC, Thebes lost its key leader, Epaminondas, and much of its manpower, even though they were victorious in battle.
In fact such were the losses to all the great city-states at Mantinea that none could establish dominance in the aftermath. In twenty years, Philip had unified his kingdom, expanded it north and west at the expense of Illyrian tribesand then conquered Thessaly and Thrace.
His success stemmed from his innovative reforms to the Macedonian army. Phillip intervened repeatedly in the affairs of the southern city-states, culminating in his invasion of BC.
Decisively defeating an allied army of Thebes and Athens at the Battle of Chaeronea BChe became de facto hegemon of all of Greece, except Sparta.
Both states also needed to develop a recording system to keep track of their goods, the Sumerians being famous as the first people so far as we know to have developed a written language called Sumerian. The Greeks also developed their own language, starting with the still undeciphered proto-script, Linear A, which culminated into the more widely used Linear B.
As with all the states we have talked about, the Greeks and Mesopotamians were eventually met with a collapse.
The Akkadians, on the other hand, seem to have collapsed due to environmental pressure, as their already strained agricultural system was unable to cope with the more arid climate and three century drought. Though much less is known about the Greek collapse than the Akkadian empire, we do know that both did not disappear entirely.
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Rather they experienced a Dark Age, separating the Mycenae Period with the Classical Era in Greece, and the Akkadian Empire with the many following empires that would dominate the history of Mesopotamia. This entry was posted in Student Blog Post 4. Greek city states were separated by a mountainous terrain that prevented them from being able to communicate with each other effectively.
Another interesting difference that you pointed out was that the Greeks never had an individual ruler. Mesopotamia, defined as the Akadian Empire, had an individual ruler in Sargon.
City-state - Wikipedia
When it came to writing, the two civilizations had similar, but also different styles. Both forms of writing seem to be lingual, meaning they are read as if you are speaking them. It was basically a mix of symbols and written words or sounds. All in all, these two civilizations were very similar to each other simply because they were geographically close to each other.
This allowed for fluent trade that resulted in similar cultures.