Examine the relationship between poverty and health

Five things to know about the relationship between poverty and health in Canada - Policy Options

examine the relationship between poverty and health

In this lesson, you'll learn about what links poverty and infectious diseases. Also, poor nutrition leads to malnutrition that causes a host of other health issues . To investigate the relationship between poverty and pre-hospital delays for patients with acute febrile illnesses, we recruited a cross-sectional. An Ugly Truth: The Dangerous Correlation Between Poverty, Health and How can a student be expected to concentrate during an exam with.

In keeping with the definition used during Demographic and Health Surveys DHS data collection, we regarded all people who usually reside and eat together as household members [ 29 ]. Interview survey Participants completed a face-to-face, interviewer-assisted survey.

examine the relationship between poverty and health

A pilot survey was undertaken with 60 participants to test questions for clarity and consistency data not shown. Pilot data are not included in this analysis, as inclusion criteria changed during the pilot phase. Participants were interviewed within 24 hours of admission if possible, and followed up until discharge from the ward, transfer to another facility, or death, whereupon this outcome was recorded, along with the provisional diagnosis from the clinical team.

In brief, ten dichotomous indicators of deprivation were assessed. Missing data were treated according to OPHI recommendations, and a poverty score for each household was calculated as the sum of the ten weighted indicators, to give a value between 0. Households with an MPI of greater than 0. Participants were asked to estimate income in an average month from all sources; this was divided by the number of adults in the household to determine income in Tk per adult equivalent AE per month.

Participants were asked to estimate and characterize costs relating to illness incurred up to the point of admission to hospital, and to describe how these costs were met.

Sequence of healthcare providers and timecourse estimation To characterize healthcare-seeking behavior, participants were first asked to narrate the steps taken in seeking help with the illness, listing all sources of help outside of the home, which had been consulted during this illness episode, up to the point of arrival at CMCH.

Interviewers then screened for omitted sources from a list of common options. Participants were then asked about the sequence in which these sources were consulted, based on the time of first consultation with each.

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Repeated consultations with the same provider were scored as a single episode, in keeping with previous studies [ 33 ]. Having established the sequence of sources of help, estimates of the timecourse of the illness and healthcare-seeking behavior were sought. Participants estimated the date and time at which the first symptom arose, approximating where a precise time or date could not be recalled by reference to day, night, and mealtimes. Participants estimated three further milestones: These milestones were used to calculate total timespan of healthcare-seeking, subdivided into i the timespan from onset of symptoms to help outside the home; ii timespan from first help to the decision to escalate to CMCH; and iii the timespan from this decision to arrival at the hospital.

Participants were questioned about perceived sources of delay in decision-making and transport, screening from a list of common causes, with scope to volunteer additional answers.

examine the relationship between poverty and health

Measurement of height, weight, and mid upper arm circumference Measurements of standing height, weight, and left mid upper arm circumference MUAC, cm were obtained from patients and all available household members. For children, age- and sex-specific standard distributions were obtained from the World Health Organization, and individuals more than two standard deviations from the mean on the basis of MUAC for children under five and BMI for those five and over were classed as malnourished [ 3435 ].

examine the relationship between poverty and health

Adults were classed as malnourished if they had BMIs of less than To cross-check accurate ascertainment in the face-to-face survey, the records of 67 participants were validated with telephone follow-up to the participant from a second researcher after discharge from hospital, confirming that key parameters had been correctly ascertained. Rank correlations between ordinal MPI score 0.

examine the relationship between poverty and health

Correlations between MPI status and continuous variables showing a non-Gaussian distribution were sought using the Mann-Whitney U test. The relationship between pre-hospital illness timespan and explanatory variables was interrogated with multiple linear regression analysis using the STATA software package. Results Demographic and clinical characteristics of the study population acutely febrile participants were recruited into this study; nine of these were excluded upon review of data for failing to meet inclusion criteria, and data from the remaining are presented for the remainder of this report Fig 1.

Which are the most deadly non-communicable illnesses worldwide? The biggest non-communicable killers are maternal and newborn deaths and deaths related to poor nutrition, cardiovascular disease and non-communicable respiratory diseases. How do disease and infection affect economic growth? Lives lost mean reduced economic productivity as well as personal tragedy.

Key Facts: Poverty and Poor Health | Health Poverty Action

Productivity is further slowed while people are ill or caring for others. Most of these were among young people and adults in their most productive years. In heavily affected countries billions of dollars of economic activity are lost each year as a result of illness and death from HIV, TB and malaria.

This can seriously reduce economic growth in countries that are already struggling. Malaria reduces economic growth by 1. How has the global community responded? World leaders and international organisations have slowly woken up to the impact of the most prevalent infectious diseases.

However, as well as tackling specific diseases, it is crucial that leaders also address the underlying causes.

examine the relationship between poverty and health

It is widely accepted that the key reason for the increase in life expectancy in wealthy countries in the late 19th and early 20th century was less to do with the leaps forward in medical science, and more to do with the arrival of better nutrition, clean water and sanitation. This includes the ability to access safe housing, choose healthy food options, find inexpensive childcare, access social support networks, learn beneficial coping mechanisms and build strong relationships. In Canada, there is no official measure of poverty.

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The way in which we measure and define poverty has implications for policies developed to reduce poverty and its effect on health. Statistics Canada does not define poverty nor does it estimate the number of families in poverty in Canada. There is a social gradient in health. This social gradient in health runs from top to bottom of the socioeconomic spectrum. If you were to look at, for example, cardiovascular disease mortality according to income group in Canadamortality is highest among those in the poorest income group and, as income increases, mortality rate decreases.