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But the base-superstructure theory is still useful, and enables us to M. The study of base is decidedly more important than that of superstructure, and it is for the purpose of analysis and correlation that the two have to be isolated at the initial stage. But a study of the process of interaction between the two is certainly fruitful, and affords valuable insights into the functioning of human society.

The distinction between base and superstructure is considered identical to that between forces of production and relations of production. In a food-producing set-up producers and the users of the produce establish various forms of relations with one another and keep the productive system going. We concede that production forces cannot be easily detatched from production relations, but an attempt to isolate the one from the other and to assess the implications of the forces at the social level does not amount to 'lazy Marxism'.

Such an exercise has proved rewarding in several significant areas of historical research. On the other hand there is not much to analyse if we gloss over the distinction between forces and relations. Whatever may be the theoretical limitations of attempts at putting forces and relations in two separate boxes, the method which scraps the distinction between the two has yet to prove its fruitfulness.

It is however not realized that advance in tools of production, division of labour and unequal allocation of resources to the tribal chief by his tribesmen eventually leads to the rise of authority associated with early civilizations. Allocation depends on collection, and collection, though backed by coercion is determined by production; real authority originates in such a situation.

Once 'authority' Collies into being il can consolidate and maintain itself by upholding and strengthening the very system that has produced it. Only a superficial view of early civilization, if it connotes class, the state, urbanism, writing, etc. The law codes of several early civilizations including those of Egypt, Babylonia, Rome and India accord privileges to the upper classes which system naturally limits the power of the 'authority' making the allocation.

What is more important early civilizations also suffer from contradictions between the authority and its upholders, i. In this context the interaction between the forces of production and the social relations generated by them assumes importance.

Full text of "The Times , , UK, English"

Holding on to the idea of base-superstructure is sometimes called vulgar Marxism, mechanical materialism, technological determinism, etc. But in an attempt to refine historical materialism we should be wary of such sophistications which tend to lead us into blind alleys. In applying historical materialism, to ancient societies some findings of social anthropologists regarding the formation and regulation of kin-based corporate units can sharpen our tools of investigation.

But 'refinement' cannot be pushed to a position which tends to destroy historical materialism and rob it of its creative and effective role in comprehending realities. In such a situation 'vulgar' materialism will be of far greater use.

After all the term 'vulgar' has something to do with the masses and not with the refined classes some members of which run to historical materialism more out of fashion than out of conviction. Some social scientists emphasize the complexities involved in the study of the rise of the state, urbanism, etc.

Foreign Languages and Cultures 2014

The debate between the mono-causist and the multi-causist is fairly old; so also is the controversy over the identification of the cause and of the causes. But the centrality of the mode of production foi a total understanding of human behaviour cannot be ignored.

An appreciation of the interconnectedness of the causes, the crucial significance of the mode of production and the corollarial importance of the other factors is far more relevant to the understanding of historical processes then the mere exposition of hundred and one causes.

We are aware that historical reconstruction has its limitations, which flow from changes in sources, methods, models and theories, and from the social and intellectual make-up of the historian. But these limitations can be greatly minimized by the method and approach preferred by us. Our study keeps a rather plain evolutionary framework, based on the findings of Marx, Engels and Morgan, and enriched by the generalizations of Cordon Childe and other investigators, who have explored archaeology, anthropology and sociology more or less on the lines of historical materialism.

On the basis of their cumulative work certain stages can be clearly discerned. The story of man starts in the palaeolithic age with the roving band of hunters and gatherers who are not necessarily related to one another by ties of kinship. They lack territoriality although they may identify certain areas for hunting and other foodgathering operations. When people take to food procuring activities they form stable combinations cemented by ties of marriage and kinship, claiming descent from some real or supposed ancestor.

They may develop their own language or may speak some common language. Such large combinations are known as tribes, which could be divided into clans, and clans into lineages. The tribal phase is associated with the domestication of plants and animals, which took place in the neolithic stage. A tribe multiplied internally with the onset of. Rituals and reciprocal gifts regulated tribal societies and served to ensure fair distribution and conesquently cohesion by overcoming inequalities caused by the growing wealth of the chiefs and great joint families.

Ethnographic and historical studies suggest several stages and variations in the development of tribal society. In some tribal distributive systems elders get preferential shares;3 in others elders and youngers alike receive equal shares. The system of a tribe living under a chief, sometimes aided by a council of elders, was widely prevalent. The chief owed his position either to personal abilities or to descent from a senior line or to both factors.

Preference for age and seniority at the initial stage provided weightage for skill and experience in the arts of production, distribution and fighting. Eventually the position of the chief became hereditary, and even a younger member of his family could inherit chieftaincy to the exclusion of the elder members of the collateral families.

When gifts to chiefs by their kinsmen became frequent and return from the chiefs infrequent, when the chief's share in the booty increased enormously and that of his kinsmen dwindled drastically, conditions were created for the rise of big and dominant chiefs; this development of power structure is called 'chiefdom'. The great chief came to be surrounded by retainers maintained at the cost of the tribal pastoralists and peasantry. The sense of territoriality linked with cultivation and sedentary habits became strong.

Rituals became far more elaborate, and although some chiefs played priests, rituals tended to be monopolized by a class of specialists. The egalitarian ethos, typified by the purely tribal phase, suffered erosion, and proprietary differenttiation became visible. This stage in social development can there- fore be called the protoclass and protostate stage. The process of the unequal distribution of the fruits of booty and those of production became pronounced.

It marked the beginnings of stratification. Really the term 'chiefdom' does not adequately signify the developments heralded by the advent of agriculture and by the domination of the great chiefs. The final stage in the development of society is marked by the emergence of class and the state.

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When advanced food-producing techniques based on agriculture and specialized crafts come into wide use, peasants produce food enough not only to maintain them but also priests, administrators, professional soldiers and the capital consisting of the ruler's establishment, artisans, traders, etc.

In many Old World cultures the state and urbanism originate together.

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Initially the state is born out of gross inequality in the distribution of the fruits of production. Later it is strengthened and dominated by those who manage to obtain a greater portion of land, labour and other basic sources of subsistence.

In fact unequal distribution culminates in unequal access to the sources of sustenance, In respect of Vedic and post-Vedic times, we have tried to examine the nature and consequences of advance in production techniques and assess their social, and sometimes religious and ritualistic implications.

Archaeology shows that in ancient times metallurgy and other techniques took centuries to spread and produce results of any great social consequence. But in the long run they left an abiding impact on social organization. We have tried to underline changes in the system of production and show whether these are closely linked up with the successive formations of the band, tribe, protoclass and protostates, and finally of class and the state. The present enquiry follows the usual text-based documentation, which may mean deriving impressionistic generalizations from various types of references.

But we have also tried to count terms of significant cultural import. In order to investigate the pastoral, tribal and class aspects of societies, wherever practicable, the number of terms used for expressing these ideas has been taken into account.

However it has not been possible to examine in all cases the context in which these terms are used. This study makes an attempt to correlate literary references to archaeological remains. Many references in literature to agriculture, metals including iron and handicrafts including pot-making have been collected.

But in the archaeological and philological context they are used to fix dates, prove antiquity, demonstrate diffusion or indigeneousness. Their value for the investigation of social and economic processes in a broad perspective is hardly realized.

In our study the later Vedic texts have been broadly examined in the context of the iron-associated Painted Grey Ware archaeology because both roughly belong to the same period and the same geographical zone.

On account of similar considerations of time and place the early Pali texts have been broadly discussed in relation to the Northern Black Polished Ware archaeology of the middle Gangetic basin. A good portion of what is said about material culture is based on archaeological studies although we draw heavily on literary references. Social patterns have been reconstructed mainly on the basis of the study of the texts, but an attempt is made to confirm and extend this entire record through archaeological and some anthropological findings.

We have neither examined the archaeological identification of the Aryans nor the association of various tribes, peoples and dynasties with different types of antiquities, particularly pottery. But the nature of linkages between the material culture and social evolution has been our chief concern.

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However both later texts and PGW iron archaeology extend over a period of about years, and since archaeological stratification does not necessarily match literary stratification, it has not been possible to clearly highlight developmental processes during this long period.

It is also likely that the iron artifacts which were being used towards the close of the PGW period in the upper Gangetic basin were being used towards the beginning of the NBP phase in the middle Gangetic basin. The study of social formation in the age of the Rg Veda cannot be advanced by the existing archaeological material.

Archaeology facilitates the study of social and economic developments in later Vedic times, but for want of statistical and technical information the excavated material cannot be used more meaningfully. The inference stressing the civilizing role of iron in various parts of the Old World is drawn from a good deal of technical studies.

But in the context of India we still need studies on the ore-artifact relationship, on the nature of the carburization of iron objects and on the rate of their rusting and corrosion. Even an exhaustive inventory of iron objects in terms of time, place and functions is lacking.

Obviously in the absence of all such information inferences tend to be provisional. The NBP archaeology, on which we have tried to build much, suffers from several limitations.

Although I have some personal knowledge of NBP sites, especially those located on both sides of the railway track between Allahabad and Bhagalpur, these have not been systematically explored, except to satisfy a thirst for knowledge. The attempt to push back the birth of civilization in India and also for extending its frontiers has led to a planned and systematic exploration of the Harappan sites. Similarly the search for the Aryans has resulted in exploration of the PGW sites.

But no such attention has been paid to the NBP sites so far. Cities mentioned in Pali texts and Chinese accounts have been excavated vertically, but we have not developed the archaeology of rural sites in historical times. Since the area surrounding a NBP urban site has not been systematically explored, we can do little to find but the link between a town and its hinterland.

It is also difficult to indicate the precise scale on which settlements appeared for the first time in the middle Gangetic plains in the age of the Buddha. While we have used some relevant findings of anthropology to explain and extend our literary and archaeological record, we have also given due weightage to ecological factors.

The semi-arid climate of the Indo-Gangetic divide and upper Gangetic plains has been contrasted with the moist and rain-fed climate of the middle Gangetic plains. The nature of the soil and vegetation has also been taken into account.

This differential factor affects the state of the preservation or otherwise of the material remains including metal objects. The PGW sites are mainly located in the windy and semi-arid zone. Hence they lie exposed, and are easier to spot and explore. But the NBP sites in the middle Gangetic plains have been subjected to centuries of sedimentation and luxuriant vegetation.

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The climatic factor also helps us to understand the relevance of iron technology to the large-scale clearance and settlement of the middle Gangetic plains in ancient times. Seminars held to examine the assumptions underlying historical writings have given rise to a healthy. But the search for theories and models has led some of us into the sociological trap, and there is a real danger for others to fall into it.

In India, till the fifties the historical method and approach was applied to sociology, political science, economics, linguistics, etc. Although the concepts of growth in economics and of modernization and industrialization in sociology owe much to history, there is also a clamour for applying the models of the other social sciences to history. There are however models and models.

We have to decide which ones are of the right type and can be used as tools of analysis. Insights from allied disciplines are always welcome, but history should not be allowed to dissolve into a welter of multidisciplinary clap-trap. Social history does not mean 'a backward projection of sociology', nor economic history an application of economic theory with 'retrospective' effect. Sociological generalizations which transcend time and place and deliberately attempt to prove the unchangeable character of Indian society pose a real danger to historians.

For comprehending and explaining the past in India we naturally look for models and typologies, but the intellectual market in social sciences, like any other market, is flooded with 'western' commodities, and we have very little choice in the matter.

The obsession of some social anthropologists with kinship, caste, ritual, language, social customs, etc. A few of these. Many of these 2 models may be useful for static societies but lose their validity for the study of social processes.

The jajmani system, for example, may explain the social and economic relations of the feudal phase but not of the pre-feudal phases.

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Whatever be the date of the Arthasastra of Kautilya, there is nothing of' the jajmani system in the whole of the text. Of the theories meant to explain social dynamics, those of Sanskritization and of the Great and Little Tradition touch only the outer cultural veneer and make little difference to the study of socio-economic formations. Much is being made of the elite theory, and irrespective of their place in the system of production, the 'elite' literally, the choice part, the best are being seen as the Prime motive force behind all social change.

But the simple historical truth, that by and large the literati and the intelligentsia are the subordinate allies of the ruling class in class societies cannot be overlooked. The theory of tradition and modernity is used to cover the whole history of society, which is also sought to be encompassed by 'simpler' and 'complex' societies.

Advances in historical knowledge during the last hundred years have altered to some extent the model of social formations provided by historical materialism, and here we should gratefully record our debt to Gordon Childe, who has provided us with valuable insights into the social formations of the bronze age, but much more still remains to be done on the differences between bronze age societies and iron age societies, and particularly on the Asiatic mode of production, to the critique of which D.

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