Marriage in Hinduism - Wikipedia
Reason: According to Hindu Mythology, During Marriage Women claims to be her husband aid for ever and follow him what ever path he might choose without . According to Hindu tradition and its sacred texts, only a male family member ( such as a husband, father or son) can perform the last rites. However . Lebanon Woman Was Playing on This Free Slot Machine App, When All Of A Sudden She Won BigGet it on Google Play Ditch the toxic relationship before it poisons you. A bride during a traditional Hindu wedding ceremony in Punjab, India. Bride in Sari and Groom It is a union of two individuals as husband and wife, and is recognized by law. According to Hinduism there are eight different types of marriages. . used to be encouraged to give up all of these when her husband died.
Some time people commit suicide even for frivolous reasons such as the failure in an academic test, or death of a film star or a politician. This is an unfortunate development, which needs to be addressed by the elders in the community. The Fate of an Individual Upon Death What happens to a soul after the death of a mortal being on earth depends upon many factors, some of which are listed below: If a person has committed many bad deeds in his life, he will go to the lower worlds and suffer from the consequences of his evil actions.
On the contrary if he performed good deeds, he will go to the higher sun filled worlds and enjoy the life there. His state of mind at the time of death, that is what thoughts and what desires were predominant in his consciousness at the time of his death, decides in which direction the jiva will travel and in what form it will appear again. For example if a person is thinking of his family and children at the time of his death, very likely he will go the world of ancestors and will be born again in that family.
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If a person is thinking of money matters at the time of his death, very likely he will travel to the world of Vishnu and will be born as a merchant or a trader in his next birth. If a person is thinking of evil and negative thoughts he will go to the lower worlds and suffer in the hands of evil. His suffering may either reform him or push him deeper into evil depending upon his previous samskaras tendencies. If he is thinking of God at the time of his death, he will go to the highest world.
The time of his death. The time and circumstances related to death are also important. For example it is believed that if a person dies on a battle field he will attain the heaven of the warriors. If a some one dies on a festival day or an auspicious day, while performing some puja or bhajan in the house, he will go to heaven irrespective of his previous deeds.
The activities of his children, that is whether they performed the funeral rites in the prescribed manner and satisfied the scriptural injunctions. There is a belief that if funeral rites are not performed according to the tradition, it will delay the journey of the souls to their respective worlds.
The grace of God. God in the form of a personal deity may often interfere with the fate of an individual and change the course of his or her after life. We have instances where God rescued his devotees from the hands of the messengers of death and placed them in the highest heaven in recognition of their meritorious deeds. Belief in many heavens and hells The early Vedic people believed in the existence of two worlds apart from ours, the world of ancestors and that of gods.
They called these worlds bhur earthbhuva moon and svar the sun which occupied the lower, the middle and the higher regions of the universe.
Death and Afterlife in Hinduism
They believed that gods attained the highest world of svar because of the sacrifices they performed in the past and that men too could reach their world through similar sacrifices. It was also through sacrifice that the gods managed to resurrect Brahma Prajapati when he exploded and lost his vital energy due to the intense heat that emanated from his act of creation.
The gods represented the life forces and renewal of life while the demons who opposed them represented the forces of death and destruction. In the struggle between gods and demons the gods won and became immortal, providing an opportunity and a possibility to mortal men to attain their status through good deeds upon earth.
However the notion of rebirth of human beings was alien to the early Vedic people. In the Rigveda there is no mention of rebirth or reincarnation 1. Once the souls departed from here, they lived either in the world of ancestors or that of the gods for good. Their bodies tanus were recreated in the higher worlds according to the merit they gained through the sacrifices they performed whilst they were alive.
The Vedic tradition of offering sacrifices to one's ancestors support the Vedic belief that the ancestors would either stay in the ancestral world or ascend to the heavenly world through the sacrifices of their descendants but would not return to earth again. If their stay was temporary, the question of making annual offerings to several generations of departed souls would not make much sense. A rudimentary concept of rebirth can be traced in some early Upanishads which repeatedly suggest that a father lives through his son.
While the body may perish, the Self does not because the knowledge and energies of the father are transmitted to the eldest son. However with the integration of new traditions into Vedic religion, the Hindu cosmology grew in complexity and so were the theological explanations about afterlife and rebirth.
The Puranas and later Vedic literature speak of the existence of not one hell and one heaven but of many sun filled worlds and many dark and demonic worlds. Apart from these, each of the Trinity of gods has his own world, which is attained by their followers after death. Indralok, the standard heaven svar of the Vedic religion remained as a temporary resting place for the pure souls.
Pitralok is the world of ancestors while Yamalok is the hell ruled by a god called Lord Yama, who is also the ruler of the southern quarter, where impure souls are held temporarily and subject to pain and punishment till their bad karmas are exhausted.
He is assisted by an attendant, known as Chitragupt, a chronicler, who keeps a catalog of the deeds of all human beings on earth and reads them out as the jivas stand in front of Yama in his court and await his verdict. According to Hindu scriptures, both heaven and hell are temporary resting places for the souls from which they have to return to earth to continue their mortal existence once their karmas are exhausted.
But the same is not the case in case of liberated souls. Liberated souls are liberated in the real sense. They are not bound to any place or condition or dimension.
Different schools of Hinduism offer different explanations about the status of a liberated soul. According to the school of advaita monismwhen a soul is liberated it reaches the highest world and becomes one with Brahman. Simply, it exists no more as an individual self. According to other schools of thought, when a soul attains the highest world of Brahman or of Vishnu or of Siva, it remains there permanently as a liberated soul savoring the company of the Supreme Being and forever freed from the delusion of Prakriti or nature.
It does not reunite with Brahman completely. Some of them may at times incarnate again on their own accord to serve humanity. But event then they would not be subject to the impurities of illusionattachment and karma. A liberated soul remains forever free and untainted even during the dissolution of the worlds and the beginning of a new cycle of creation. The purpose of heavens and hell In the ultimate sense, the purpose of after life is neither to punish nor reward the souls, but to remind them of the true purpose of their existence.
In the final analysis, the difference between heaven and hell is immaterial because both are part of the great illusion that characterizes the whole creation. The difference is very much like the difference between a good dream and a bad dream. It should not matter to soul whether it has gone to a heaven or to some hell, because the soul is eternally pure and not subject to pain and suffering.Amazing Tips For Successful Marriage - Chanakya Neeti
It is the residual jiva, that part which leaves the body and goes to the higher planes after death, which is subject to the process of learning through pain and pleasure in the temporary worlds of heaven and hell. Once its learning is accomplished and the effects of its previous karma is exhausted it returns to the earth to continue its existence. A jiva which goes to heaven, will enjoy the pleasures of heaven and in the end realizes that seeking heavenly pleasures is not the ultimate goal since however intense these pleasures may be, they would not last long.
A soul which falls into the darker world gets a taste of the horror of the evil it tried to promote on earth, with a multiplier effect and with an intensity and severity that would make it realize the horrors of evil. Thus in either case, the purpose of heavens and hells is to impart an attitude of wisdom and detachment to the souls.
Pandirao Mali, it was held that if H and W were living as Husband and Wife, then even in the absence of proof to that effect, a rebuttal presumption would arise that the marriage between them was valid. Bhikan Choudhary - 1 SCC Sumitra Devi filed an application for maintenance under Section of the Code of Criminal Procedure for herself as also a minor daughter alleging that she had been married to the Bhikan sometime in and out of the wedlock the child had been born.
She further alleged that the fact that the respondent was already married and his spouse was living was not known. After the discovery of the previous marriage of the respondent the relationship between the parties gradually became strained and ultimately the respondent started totally neglecting the appellant and refused to maintain her.
She had, therefore, no option left but to ask for maintenance for herself as also for the child.
Death and Afterlife in Hinduism
Criminal Procedure Code, - Section - Hindu Marriage Act, - Section 7 - There can be a marriage acceptable in law according to customs which do not insist on performance of rites as saptapadi and marriages of this type give rise to legal relationship which law accepts.
The Additional Sessions Court and the High Court has adopted a technical approach while considering the question of marriage. Criminal Procedure Code, - Section - Hindu Marriage Act, - Section 7 - Evidence Act, - Section - Parties had lived together about a decade public records including voters' lists described them as husband and wife and competent witnesses of the village of the wife as also the husband had supported the factum of marriage witnesses have also spoken about the reputation of the appellant being known in the locality as the wife of the respondent.
To prove the factum of marriage between the husband and the wife, we must rely on whether the husband has treated the woman as his wife in the society. Accordingly, the Voter's Identity Card, wherein she has been referred to as his wife, or the joint bank account, or even the police complaint wherein he has stated that she is his wife can be used to prove her status as her wife.
Rajlakshmiit was held that when the wife comes to the court claiming maintenance, the husband should not be allowed to take advantage of his own wrong, alleging that there is a first marriage subsisting and thereby, the marriage between him and the wife claiming maintenance is a nullity.
In Mallika and Anr v. P Kulandithe Madras High Court held that is sufficient if evidence is available to the effect that the parties lived together for considerable time. In this case, the court held that it was established that the petitioner had been living with the respondent for a considerable period and continuously, so as to give way for the child to be born- this status of the petitioner is sufficient to get maintenance for herself as well as for the child.
Where the husband misrepresented that the first wife was dead, the second wife would be entitled to maintenance and the child from the maintenance and the child from the second marriage would be legitimate child. Hindu Personal Law Bigamy is defined as an offence not only under the criminal law but also under HMA, Section 17, HMA says that any marriage between Hindus is void if on the date of such marriage, either party had a husband or wife living.
The same is punishable under Section andIPC. Another option available to the second wife is to get the marriage annulled under Section 11 read with Section 5 1 of HMA. Section 5, HMA provides for the conditions for the valid marriage, on being that neither party should have spouse living at the time of the marriage.
Accordingly, a marriage contracted while either party has a spouse living, can be annulled under Section 11 of Hindu Marriage Act, The provisions for divorce under Section 13, HMA also provide for the remedy available to the second wife. Section 13 2 i of HMA says that in cases of marriages before commencement of this Act, a second wife can seek divorce on the ground that her husband's first wife was alive at the time of the solemnization of the second marriage.
Even though the law for the interim maintenance under Section 24, HMA does not categorically provide for maintenance for second wife, the Section has been given a very wide interpretation by the courts to bring the cases of second wives within its ambit. The second can also claim interim maintenance under the interpretation given to Section 24, HMA. Ayodhya Prasad, it was held that 'wife' and 'husband' used in Section 24, HMA are not to be given strict literal meaning as to convey only legally married wife and husband.
The expression wife and husband is in the context of the section and scheme of the Act should mean a person claiming to be a wife or a husband. Similarly, under section 25, HMA the provisions for permanent alimony has also been interpreted widely by the courts to protect the rights of the second wives.
After the declaration of the nullity of the marriage, the second wife could claim maintenance under section 25, HMA. It was held in Rajesh Bai v. Shantabai, that a woman whose marriage is void because of the existence of another wife is entitled to maintenance under this Section.
In Kulwant Kaur alias Preeti v. Prem Nath, it was also said 'no sane lady would surrender herself unless she treats her male companian as her husband- whether the marriage is proved or not that is the point to be determined by the trial Court itself- but keeping in view the fact that the petitioner cohabited with the respondent, interim maintenance under Section 20, HAMA is allowed to her'.
Under Hindu Women's Rights to Separate Residence and Maintenance Act,a Hindu married woman was entitled to maintenance if her husband contracted another marriage provided this happened before the commencement of that Act. However, Section 18, HAMA provides that a Hindu wife can claim maintenance from her husband on the basis of the aforementioned grounds amongst several others irrespective of the time when he contracted the other marriage before or after Accordingly, a wife can claim maintenance from her husband even after she abandoned him when she comes to know that her husband has another wife living.
The phrase 'any other wife living has been interpreted variously by the different High Courts. High Court held that 'wife living' meant existing or alive and not necessarily living with the husband. However, a subsequent decision of the Madras High Court on the other hand in Annamalai Mudaliar v Perunayee Ammal, said that 'wife living' necessarily meant living with the husband.
Mukundrao, holding that under Section 18 of HAMA, the second wife can also claim a separate residence and maintenance under this Act. Conclusion The social stigma attached with being a second wife, the absence of any legal status to the relationship, and the enormous pain of being cheated into the marriage are undoubtedly extremely depressing for a woman. Given this background of contrasting legal precedents, lawmakers should make clear provisions to protect the rights of those women who have been duped into 'second marriages' so as to bring them some respite.
However, in some cases women have taken on this role. In Vedic times, there were incidents of the putrika--a daughter who could assume the role of a son. In later years, the religious patriarchy interpreted the putrika as the grandson, and reserved the conducting of the last rites for males. In most Hindu families, the body is bathed immediately after death, sometimes by women in the family.
The ritual marks of the community, along with sacred ash, may be applied on the person's body, under the guidance of the priest who chants holy mantras, which vary in different Hindu communities. Before the body is cremated, the immediate family members put flowers on the body, rice in the mouth as nourishment for the departed souland coins in the hands.
The body is placed on a bier and taken to the cremation center. With the exception of the bodies of children and sanyasis, bodies are usually cremated. There are, however, some Hindu communities which practice burial. When the person dies, the family is in a state of grief. To respect this, no cooking is done in the house until the cremation takes place.