Battle of Arsuf - Wikipedia
ABSTRACT Saladin, “noble enemy” of Richard the Lionheart and victor at the battle of Hattin, a truce with Saladin just before his departure from Palestine in. Richard I (8 September – 6 April ) was King of England from until his death. He was known as Richard Cœur de Lion or Richard the Lionheart because of his . Marriage alliances were common among medieval royalty: they led to At this point Henry II made an offer of peace to his sons; on the advice of . The Third Crusade (–) was an attempt by European Christian leaders to reconquer the Holy Land following the capture of Jerusalem by the Ayyubid sultan, Saladin, in Also known as the Kings' Crusade for its main leaders, kings Richard I of On 2 September , Richard and Saladin finalized a treaty granting.
Saladin made the first move with his call to jihad in against the crusader fortresses that overlooked pilgrimage routes to Mecca. Not only did he nullify them, but he went on to recapture Jerusalem and with it the most venerated Christian relic of all: The Crusade of was the European reaction to this disaster. Richard, by then on the English throne, was the first of the Christian princes to respond to the Holy Roman Emperor's call to arms, swiftly followed by his former lover and rival, Philip Augustine of France.
The emperor, Frederick Barbarossa, was drowned on his way east, and thereafter Richard became the leader of the Crusade. There was one great setpiece engagement at the vital seaport of Acre, which the crusaders besieged for 23 months before it fell and yielded 2, prisoners, who were slaughtered by Richard's men after the sultan had failed to collect enough ransom money. Saladin responded by killing all the Europeans who had fallen into his hands.
An eye for an eye was the basis of most dealings between the two men, though the sultan was at least capable of civilised gestures, resisting the advice of his fanatical followers to destroy the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. In the end Saladin held Jerusalem, the invaders being too exhausted for another long campaign.
What was left of the crusaders returned home with certain rights to pilgrimage granted by their enemy. There are a number of sub-plots to Reston's tale: This crusade had two major components: Although there was some success and progress made on the Iberian Peninsula, "the lack of success in the Baltic and the despair and anger engendered by the defeat of the main armies cast a shadow over crusading for many years".
Before relating the major events of the Third Crusade, the backgrounds of both Richard and Saladin must first be examined, especially since Saladin is so directly related to the precipitating events of the crusade. He spent much of his youth in Aquitaine, where his mother "imbued Richard with her special code of courtly love".
Richard and Saladin: Warriors of the Third Crusade
Richard was the Duke of Aquitaine, but this title carried no real power, and since he wanted more, he made a pact with the King of France. Despite the rebelliousness of his son, Henry II eventually forgave Richard, and it was after this point that Henry vested Richard with "the power and authority to subdue the rebellious barons of Aquitaine and Gascony and to confiscate the lands of any barons who resisted him", allowing Richard to hone his military skill.
Saladin was born into a Kurdish family in at Tikreet, and he grew up in Baalbek and Damascus. It is sometimes argued that Saladin learned from his education in Damascus to "walk in the path of righteousness, to act virtuously, and to be zealous in waging war against infidels".
Despite differences between the two men, following Nur ad-Din's death inSaladin was able to take control of Syria, and he was pronounced sultan of both Egypt and Syria, ending a division between the two that had lasted centuries. Frederick Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor, set out for the East inbut he died before he could reach the Holy Land, which was a severe loss for the Europeans near the very beginning of the Third Crusade. Richard stopped at Cyprus on his way to the Holy Land and conquered the island before meeting up with Philip at the siege of Acre on 8 June Saladin was unable to break the Christians' blockade, and the city fell to the crusading kings in a little over a month, after which Philip departed to return to the West and Richard turned south toward Jaffa.
During the march on 7 SeptemberSaladin attacked the crusaders on the plains of Arsuf near Jaffa, but he suffered a heavy loss. Richard was then able to take Jaffa, and he then spent some time consolidating his gains. He decided that he had to return home the following spring because he had word of intrigue between his brother John and King Philip back home.
Saladin decided to try and retake Jaffa, but Richard was able to defeat Saladin once again.
Saladin and Richard the Lionheart are two names that tend to dominate the Crusades
Because of Richard's need for departure and because the resources of both Richard and Saladin were very low, they reached a three-year truce on 2 Septemberin which the Christians had to give up a small portion of their gains and Christian pilgrims would be allowed to enter Jerusalem.
The Third Crusade failed in its goal to recapture Jerusalem, but it did secure the coastline from Jaffa to Tyre, creating a point from which future crusades could be launched. Both Richard and Saladin were successful generals; Richard's successes not only at the siege of Acre but also during the Battle of Arsuf testify to this, as do Saladin's victories when first taking Acre and during the Battle of Hattin.
Richard, for example, showed an appreciation of wider strategy in acknowledging the role of Egypt, and he also realized that although he and the other crusaders might be able to recapture the city of Jerusalem, that it would be very difficult to defend the city. As a general, Saladin made "himself known to the rank and file of the soldiers in his army, creating bonds of loyalty and solidarity and enhancing corporate morale", important factors in waging battle.
Both Richard and Saladin were also capable of the slaughter of a great number of prisoners. Richard was "capable on occasion of extreme severity towards prisoners", such as when he had "many Muslim prisoners killed at Acre", perhaps numbering as many as 3, After Acre, Saladin delayed in living up to the terms of his treaty with Richard in an attempt to keep "the king hanging on for a long time". Primary sources provide a great deal of evidence that corroborates many of the specific details of the Third Crusade.
In fact, one of the only major differences within several of the sources deals with issues of the descriptions and portrayals of Richard and Saladin themselves. In the Itinerarium Saladin is a figure with many negative qualities for much of the work, up until the point at which he and Richard conclude the three-year truce in According the author of the Itinerarium, Saladin "treacherously killed He is presented as a cruel man who had Christians slaughtered, wounded, and thrown into chains and had many prominent Christians such as Templars and the prince of Antioch beheaded.
One of them retorts that God is using Saladin for God's own purpose, "'just as a worldly father sometimes when he is enraged grabs a filthy stick from the mud with which to beat his erring sons, and then throws it back into the dungpit from which he took it.
Later, the author of the Itinerarium writes that Saladin is a "timid creature, like a frightened hare. Following the conclusion of his truce with Richard, however, Saladin seems to become a different person in the Itinerarium. Not only do Richard and Saladin converse amicably through messengers, but Saladin also shows Hubert Walter, bishop of Salisbury "much honor and fulfilled all his requests" when the bishop visits Jerusalem.
Saladin "enjoin[s] his servants to show the bishop and his people every kindness. Hubert even tells Saladin that if there were any way in which to combine "[Saladin's] virtues with those of King Richard, and share them out between [them] so that both The Itinerarium's description of Saladin becomes much more positive and essentially the direct opposite of what it had been prior to the truce between Richard and Saladin.
Ambroise's description of Saladin in his Crusade is much more balanced throughout the work, although his view of Saladin is definitely not always positive. He also describes the way in which Saladin honors the safe-conduct of Christian pilgrims and even honors them, as well as the way in which he courteously receives Hubert Walter. Also, there do not seem to be quite so many negative comments, and such comments do not seem quite as severe as those found in the Itinerarium.
Interestingly, within the Crusade Ambroise relates an episode similar to the stick of God analogy in the Itinerarium. This is perhaps the only explanation that Christians can come up with for why God would allow the Christians to be removed from Jerusalem.
After all, according to the Christian view, God wants Christians to hold the city. Saladin's role as punisher may partially explain his dichotomous portrayal within these two Christian primary sources. On the one hand, there is a figure that represents and is responsible for displacing the Christians from Jerusalem, but on the other there is a figure with many positive characteristics.
Although many of these characteristics come through in the works, Saladin is still the enemy and still a powerful figure who believes in an opposing faith. Following the conclusion of the truce with Richard, Saladin becomes less of a threat and less of an enemy, and he is viewed a great deal more positively.
Of course, some of the negativity surrounding Saladin might also be attributed to biases on the parts of the Christian authors, especially since it can be argued that Richard is in effect the hero of their works.
If the Itinerarium and Ambroise's Crusade seem somewhat confused in their portrayal of Saladin, they are very clear and almost completely positive in their descriptions of Richard, noting many positive characteristics. According to the Itinerarium, Richard is generous and "delighted all his subjects with his actions and his incomparable superiority. He has "the valour of Hector, the heroism of Achillies, he was not inferior to Alexander, nor less valiant than Roland[, and] After all, his "magnificent deeds overshadowed all others, no matter how glorious.
Considering the previous descriptions of Richard in the Itinerarium and the Crusade, it might seem that Richard was considered to be perfect within both of these Christian sources. Although this is very nearly the case, they both are at least somewhat critical of Richard's rashness.