Introduction: Philosophy of Education and Philosophy - Oxford Handbooks
This paper turns to the political philosophy of Mouffe and Rancière, the work of Rancière in aesthetics, and Biesta's educational philosophy to. In a certain sense, art, like philosophy, reflects reality in its relation to man, and . production and social processes, cure the sick and educate the ignorant. Barbara Westfall's philosophy of art and art education. Learning has a relationship with others and with material items in the world. In order for learning to take.
A germ of the dynamics of these two explicit movements can be observed in the excerpts below. Inan intense discussion about the aesthetics of existence will begin with a flagship publication by Wolfgang Welsch in a Brazilian newspaper.
Michel Foucault, famous in the s as a critic of modern education of the subject he discovered this education as a strategy for social disciplinewas made a prophet of the new aesthetic trends in the s.
He advocated a new kind of education, sharply aesthetics: It is true that Foucault thought that through this path self-determined and tough subjects would arise, but I fear that this aesthetics of existence is largely only an appreciation, dependent on the time spirit, of an aesthetic self-aesthetization, and that the real subjects are but accommodated and conform to objective aesthetization as decorative dolls Welsch,p.
Eight years later, there is a text by Luciana Loponte which says: From the definition of askesis brought by Foucault, I believe that there are at least two important elements to think teacher training and to support what I call the artist teaching: Teacher training, as the constitution of the subject, is a constant, permanent, uninterrupted process. Ethics and aesthetics of self would then go through the reinvention of a political formation, for example, based on teacher training groups that, in this constant game of truth among subjects, could play with the minimum possible domination Loponte,p.
In the face of these two movements, it is here analyzed the process in which the concepts of difference and aesthetics of existence are summoned to participate in the construction of new school or educational models.
It indicates that art would have the mediating role of cultural differences, criticizing the place of art as a producer of cultural consensus at the expense of aesthetic differentiation. The author tries to highlight the intentions sheltering around the aesthetics of sensitivity, revealing its functionality in capitalism and trying to understand what happened to the aesthetics, to be able to exit ostracism and become one of the principles in the National Curriculum Guidelines.
These principles can be summed up, according to her, in the notions of creativity, diversity, uneasiness, grounded on intellectual appearance, superficiality, rationality and skills.
The author argues that this proposition hides the exploitation of the worker by the capital, and that truth and goodness lose ground to an aesthetics of individual subjectivity, so that, in this place, art would become a mask of oppression. However, the discussion takes its big breath at a later time, when, in the wake of Welsch, Nadja Hermann criticizes Foucault and the notion of aesthetics of existence, because it seemed detached from ethics.
She reassesses the role of reason and aesthetics in the post-war, pointing out that, after two wars and the suspicion of modern reason as an ethical guide, it is witnessed the emergence of plurality and difference as production plans of collective life. Nevertheless, she considers that the aesthetics detached from ethical and moral foundations would create only accommodated subjects to conform to objective aesthetization. Faced with this situation, Hermann advocates an education that not only provides a moral content, but also releases new forms of sensitivity and produces an aesthetic experience capable of causing intense emotion, new sensitivities and estrangement.
In this place, art would have the function of defending the not identical that is oppressed and to make the different known by the sensitivity produced in artistic experience. Art would still be a way to understand the new ethical requirements in the face of plurality as well as to overcome the Enlightenment educational projects, while it might be a gateway to the moral life as education for otherness.
Finally, the author suggests a reconciliation between ethics and aesthetics, in which, through education, man would constitute a second nature, which is not only ethical creator of customsbut also aesthetic reality producerwhere their moral autonomy becomes a form of aesthetic creation.
She argues that the invention of self proposed by Foucault is not an individualist or superficial act, as stated by Welsch and his commentators. Inthere is another text by Hermann, in which the author once again problematizes the possibility of the aesthetic experience act on moral sensitivity.
In this work, she questions some assumptions of Kantian rationalism and the loss of sense of art in modernity. According to the author, the aestheticized ethics appear when we have the decline of traditional ethics guided by reason. For her, today, the term aesthetics leaves the exclusive field of art and turns to the sensitive one, while the theory of art goes to all fields of life.
There it is the aesthetical phenomenon: Art and its teaching now have the function of refuge to plurality, to difference, to what is strange, to the innovative and all that is irreducible to the rational, influencing the creation of new lifestyles and new action guidelines, which generate the aestheticized ethics.
The way out, so this process does not become demeaning, would be to make the aesthetic experience bring new interpretations to ethical principles.
The result of this process would have opened, according to Hermann, new possibilities for education, like multiculturalism, aesthetic education, the transgression between science and art, etc. In this line, the art would have the function of forming sharp sensitivities and contributing to the creation of an art of living, in order to enable the game of Kantian practical reason, of exercising universal judgment, to be put into practice. Although differently, the author tries, as does Foucault, to think of an art of living.
Hermann bets on a relationship between morality and aesthetics, on the creation of an art of living in which the universal and the particular produce together the shared world. This game between the particular and the universal is what would allow mankind to decide and lead their life. The tension on only one side of this game could lead not only to an instrumental rationality, but also to an aesthetic self-stylization which, in the fight against the production of objectified subject or mass-produced subjects, would never be able to create a common ethos.
Many authors accept that justification, even if in a tinted way, to think the relationship between ethics, aesthetics and education. It proceeds as follows: I propose to discuss here the issue of ethical-aesthetical teacher training having Michel Foucault and his hermeneutics of the subject as the main theoretical tool, and using as an empirical material, some cinema and television audiovisual narratives.
I suppose it could make an important part of teacher training the education of the look, sensitivity education, ethics education, whose source could be, among many other possibilities, some immersion exercises in audiovisual languages: To achieve this goal, she mobilizes notions such as care of the self and genealogy in order to understand what we are and how we can differ it.
In addition, this author points out something massively repeated by the authors of the corpus: Most authors part from the concept of crisis or that we would be facing a change of the traditional and the modern paradigm for contemporary ways of education. Such ways will be proposed by various strategies, as shown below, each of which suggesting several functions and features to the art and its teaching.
In this context, art is often stated as an aesthetic phenomenon and the engine for the creation of the new in education Costa, The Crisis in Education Some authors - for example, Pellanda - discuss the disenchantment of life and education, in modernity, on the assumption that emotion and imagination would have been relegated to the background and therefore art would be divorced from life, as well as imagination and emotion denied as cognitive tools.
Pressing issues, such as high culture versus popular culture, education versus work, the crisis in higher education, the art of ethnic groups taken as folklore, the fact that feminism has not influenced the visual arts courses and the not overcoming of the exclusionary University, would demonstrate, according to the researchers, the power relations that sustain the university and would need to be surpassed, and that should be considered as stimulating elements for overcoming the crisis.
It is also often argued that, today, teachers would face new paradigms, making it necessary to understand how art practices can become an instrument of resistance able to give voice to the student against the hegemony of bourgeois culture. This paradigm shift would be sustained in authors as Foucault, Jorge Larossa, Henri Giroux, Stuart Hall, and Tomaz Tadeu Guerra,as well as in the last century changes, including the Nietzschean thought, criticism of rationalism and changes in science highlighted by Humbert Maturana and Ilya Prigogine.
These changes would produce new relationships between science, life and art, and we would live the end of certainties, in which everything becomes becoming, so it would be necessary to invent life at every moment and take life as a work of art Pellanda, The Production of Interventions Around andthere is, along with the theoretical discussions to overcome the crisis in education, an incentive to produce practical interventions, based on the philosophical concepts.
There are texts that take certain art practices, such as the clown, for production and reinvention of self, which seek art as an ally in the process of inventing lines of flight in life Kasper, This practice proposes to carry out a variation of self, able to escape the patterns of a biopolitics logic - which would imply powers over the bodies - in favor of the affirmation of a biopotency - which is about a potency of the body.
Similarly, there are texts that intend to cinematize education, as did Deleuze to Philosophy Fantin, In such a proposal on cinema and imagination or on the different ways to watch a movie, it is asserted that more important than the film itself is the relationship established with it.
There is still a text that discusses the mandatory teaching of music in school and the frequent confusion between the work features aimed at producing professional musicians and the work aimed at music education Brito, It is indicated by the author, that music in school should not bind to usefulness, be a living art as part of everyday life and of life itself. The argument would be processed based on humanizing functions of art, on the discussion about the relationship between art as game and play, on reflections about the different art uses, and on the relationship between art, everyday life and becoming.
Electing the school as something productive, creative and machinic as a problem, the authors aim to analyze the school in its singularity, glimpsing an education that goes beyond the outline of the shape, definition, training and body, and that is able to open to the body transmutation, to disease, to contamination as composition; that is, a school as a work of art, available to the becomings of education.
There are also certain art practices recommended by the Education Visual Culture ECVwhich takes them as a new way to view image in the classroom, questioning notions such as the universal, the hegemonic, the formal, noting that today there is the prevalence of image over language. The texts about this subject Martins; Pereira; Valencia, suggest, based on Foucault, the discussion on the effects of power to seek other more democratic alternatives, legitimated by the images.
Thus, they perceive interpretation and image understanding as a repertoire of life and subjectivity, which makes it possible to legitimize the marginal speeches. They deny the formal, objective, universal and representational approaches as the embodiment of truth and bet on an education able to understand that it is about mediated and socially constructed ways of seeing.
Their method consists in distrusting the dominant images that expel the different and use the image as an effect of truth. They see contemporary art as a plurality of opinions.
In this perspective, the image serves to deconstruct the hegemonic models of normality, allowing an approach without the exclusion of differences, identities and otherness.
With regard to education, the researchers argue that the ECV would be important for the development of critical thinking in order to live in the society of the spectacle and consumption. As a teaching tool, image and art have their importance associated with the dissolution of prejudice, by giving voice to the subjectivity of the student. Art would have the function to re-enchant education, due to its potential to trigger cognitive-ontological processes, to rescue the emotions and build a better world, to make students aesthetically build the school and, therefore, unsettle it and open it to the becomings.
Art would propose new experiences and other ways of living, and would free us from the present, creating other different worlds Oliveira, Fonseca, In such context, in which art relates to educational practices, it should not express transcendent essences nor externalize ways of seeing the world. It proposes an art as learning events or the class as a work of art Zordan, Moreover, it is stressed, based on Nietzsche and Deleuze, the notion of art as pure indeterminacy, as an inopportune and untimely entity, or as a line of flight that breaks up with what is called good education Costa, It would be able to produce a destabilization of education, to make the curriculum seductive and to keep the art alive as an inventive spirit.
It is also proposed a practical educational art in the order of the desire, of the machinic, of the free expression, of the event, which is called Curricularte. To this a few recommendations to the artist-teacher is added: Another Education and Another Student This context of a new education proposal is intensified toward the affirmation of a non-school education subject.
There are authors who question, with the readings of the works of Foucault and Derrida, the economic education of young people at the expense of comprehensive training, suggesting the resumption of libertarian pedagogy and queer theory to think of education, as well as associate these pedagogies to Visual Culture as a way of overcoming art education 3. In this context, Visual Culture would crave to encourage the production of a student to see the world and themselves in a less predetermined way, expanding the content of possibilities in the classroom and dissolving hierarchies and prejudice of origin of the objects.
For Visual Culture, school should be transformed into a space that respects the individuality of students in such a way that the choices and individual development processes should not be lost through the dictatorship of the majority.
As we can see, it is present the idea to propose or build lines of flight, through a pedagogy based on philosophical concepts. In this line of thought, there are texts that seek to analyze the knowledge-power device of didactics and propose the epistemological basis to build a didactic of the work of art. This would be based on a decreased use of language in agency, territorial and rhizomatic dispossession processes as well as in the acts of resistance to doxa, communication and representation Pougy, It is believed that the poetic and the creation, in the classroom, are born out of the noisy moments of miscommunication, that is, resistance.
And that the thought would not be a servile activity related to solutions with already given condition.What is Aesthetics? (Philosophy of Art)
Therefore, art, as a prospect of creation in Deleuzian sense, would be the best guide to the didactics of the work of art able to see with other eyes the school failures.
There are also authors Brito,p. This lower education would be characterized as a search for changes, being committed to libertarian values. In short, we would have as a starting point of most authors a sense of crisis and the proposition of ways to overcome it, from the materialization of philosophical concepts to the educational reality.
In this context, art would play a role in overcoming it, to which functions and features combined with certain philosophy of education are assigned. Also, an educational subject would be proposed for both art education and for education in general, which would be designed in the midst of seeking to overcome a purely academic education, as well as the effervescence of new educational forms and lines of flight of inventions.
Two Dissenting Voices As we can see, these authors bet on the proposition of an aesthetics of existence founded on guided justifications for collective or political nature causes, as well as on proposing actions projects from the conceptual framework of the philosophy of difference. Jardel Sander problematizes the body and its relation to the subjectification, culture and artistic creation processes. The author declares he recognizes the relationship between art, creation and capitalism; however, he highlights that certain arts work as new possibilities that escape the capital, because they deny permanence.
Stressing the idea of art as an alternative to instrumental rationality, he questions, based on Nietzsche, whether today the body would not be a major reason or the final resting place of the subject, indicating the body-invention that would oppose to the entity body. The latter pair of concepts is subordinated to the former, and the beings that inhabit the sensible world can be subdivided in shadows and sensible objects, to which correspond two forms of knowledge, i.
Tecne, as a productive knowledge, is not far from the sphere of the sensible either, therefore it cannot provide a foundation to political life. Although tecne is closely connected to common existence and doxa, as it is so widely used, the city inhabitants cannot share the totality of technical mastery nor be universal technicians themselves.
Plato rejects any pretension of a technocratic polis, although he recognizes the importance of tecne in the organic composition of his Republic. He equally refuses the insufficiency of opinions doxa as the knowledge basis of the polis. Now, neither episteme nor tecne represent a widely shareable knowledge, a condition of possibility for political and knowledge equality to exist.
Therefore, one could say that the starting point and the finishing point of the Platonic educative project is inequality, although the ultimate goal proclaimed in The Republic is the common good. Thus, we can see that equality and freedom do not go together in Plato. At any rate, education is the only way through which hierarchies should be established among men. In light of the above, how can we understand the relationship, in Plato, between education, art, and politics?
Throughout history, whenever this conception reappears, it is always inherited from the Greeks; and it always reappears when man abandons the idea of training the young like animals to perform certain definite external duties, and recollects the true essence of education JAEGER,p.
In this perspective, Bildung could not be interpreted as self-cultivation in a heavily individualistic, private sense PIEPER,as Bildung would always bring along a general, universal, humanistic component, thus identifying itself with the concept of Paideia in its Greek origin — therefore, still far from the modern notion of atomized subjectivity OLIVEIRA, The ideal of education represented in Paideia can only be sufficiently understood in the context of Greek culture as part of its organic view of reality, allied to a certain general plastic sense the Hellenes possessed, always in search of the cosmos, of a sort of legality in all realms of being.
It is not a training or skill one can acquire like an instrument for performing a technical or practical task, however important and necessary those skills may be to existence. Educating is not reproducing the empirical, particular forms of humanity according to immediate customs and habits, but rather an attempt at reaching an elevated ideal of humanity, the essence of which is the search for perfection beginning in the connection and integration of truth, beauty, and goodness ROSS, Hence why the Greek notion of anthropoplasty, seen as a sort of common mentality that founds education, culture, and the ideal of beauty, does not exclude the realms of the non-human.
On the contrary, there is a symmetric correlation between microcosm and macrocosm, anthropoplasty and cosmoplasty. However, the anthropoplasty contained in the paideia and in the Bildung can only be understood by taking the human component in its emblematicity JAEGER, Thus, if philosophy is incompatible or cannot identify with aesthetics, there would be no absurdity in admitting, from the beginning, a philosophy or even a metaphysics of beauty.
We could, therefore, affirm that there is an essential relationship between the concepts that constitute the ideal of beauty and the formative ought, which is embodied in an ethos, a certain attitude of disinterested care that is proper of the philosopher ARENDT, and which, therefore, can only acquire its full meaning in his activity — an activity that becomes a model to education, as we will see below. Although the above-mentioned Platonic works do not agree in several aspects which we will not go into here, in all of these works the underlying concern is, primarily, a gnoseological one.
Introduction: Philosophy of Education and Philosophy
Centrality is given to the ability to reveal truth as the first step to reach beauty, goodness, and justice. Hence emerge the limitations of the artistic activity and its productions in unveiling truth. It is also for this reason that the poetic existence is relativized, as it cannot by its own means reach the sense of being, in an immediate rational noetic intuition. The noetic intuition allows immediate access to the original, in an apprehending act prior to language.
The passing of judgments or the philosophical conceptual discourse is, in a way, just a representation, a sort of imitation of the intuited, understood as a full presence.
For this reason, the discursive logos, as it relies on the sense of words, cannot by itself be fully understood and experienced, except by those who had the noetic intuition of the represented being PLATO, There is no authentic experience of truth in the sphere of representation, in the realm of language.
All the limitation of poetic productions, as signs of beings, lies in the fact that both producers and admirers lack the experience of an originary noetic intuition to make a representation filled and whole with sense.
In the poetic realm, we can expect at best a sensible intuition as correlate of the sign. The Platonic criticism of poetic activity and sophistic rhetoric relies on the argument of the insufficiency of a representation by hearsay or based on a mere sensible, apparent image — therefore with no guarantees of having the intelligible foundation, which is apprehensible only by philosophical activity, carried out by a dialectical movement of the soul.
There is no second-order experience that could replace this personal effort. The philosophical experience of truth is pre-linguistic, therefore no communicational process can convey truth in itself. The difference of the philosopher in relation with other intellectuals is partially explained by the way he understands signs and the relation between thought, language, and reality. In order for a refutation to be strong, Plato was interested in questioning not just any representative of these groups, but those individuals who were deemed the best, the excellent among the others.
The theoretical dispute engendered by philosophy intends to request from its own realm the conceptual arguments that can show the relevance of the other groups concerning the unveiling of truth, the primary, founding task to any other human initiative that seeks the greatest perfection possible within its own sphere.
Knowledge, art, and education in Plato’s Republic
The forcefulness and intensity with which Plato criticizes poetic activity has one strong justification: Obviously, from the philosophical viewpoint, and with a view to the search of truth, the privilege granted to mythopoeic culture might be, perhaps, undeserved.
The Republic starts with two interesting discussions: In the anthropological dimension, the body is confronted with the soul, the latter being educated by music, the former by gymnastics, thus taking as the basis of body education the principles of harmony, rhythm, i. With regard to the relation of these formative components, Plato is very clear: And as there are two principles of human nature, one the spirited and the other the philosophical, some God, as I should say, has given mankind two arts answering to them and only indirectly to the soul and bodyin order that these two principles like the strings of an instrument may be relaxed or drawn tighter until they are duly harmonized.
There is a clear hierarchy in the soul-body relationship, in which the latter is subordinated to the former, although, at the same time, there is a mutual dependence, albeit unequal, due to the very differentiation found in this subordination relationship.
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The realm of the animic — the place of wisdom and courage — is the principle the governs the idea of harmonization in search of a true, just, and beautiful education. The ideal of beauty and education appears in the dialogue between Glaucon and Socrates, when the latter rhetorically inquires his interlocutor: And ugliness and discord and inharmonious motion are nearly allied to ill words and ill nature, as grace and harmony are the twin sisters of goodness and virtue and bear their likeness.
The Republic is no doubt a work essentially imbued with political concerns — reflections are made on the concept of justice, of the just polis — but we cannot fail to consider that the political education for building the city is the correlative and equally important subject matter. The polis, its education, art, poetry, all these elements can only be understood and integrated based on the ontological and gnoseological comprehension of Platonism, the basis of which is the already known theory of ideas.
It is in Book II of The Republic that Plato first remarks clearly on the place of artists and poets in an unhealthy polis. By a sort of family resemblance, they are grouped together with a series of other characters that form a city where education is damaged. Then we must enlarge our borders; for the original healthy State is no longer sufficient. The status of existing poets is refused, as they would only suit the unhealthy city.
However, the debate cannot conclude that poets are dispensable, as long as they stay within the limits set by the new Paideia proposed by Plato in The Republic.
Poets have their place as part of the set of other artists, artisans, and technicians who will help form the political body in its organic totality. To the contemporary eye, which is used to seeing the artist, particularly the poet, as some sort of genius, an extraordinary being, the Platonic view certainly causes a strong sense of strangeness. As Datienne shows, Greek archaic tradition considered the poet a master of truth, close to the soothsayer and the king.
The Aesthetics of Existence and the Difference in the Encounter of Art and Education
Nor does the approximation between king and poet make sense in the polis proposed by Plato. The truth of the city is not constituted as a divine revelation, but must rather be sought by man the way a philosopher would, and this, in turn, is the only acceptable model for a king, as Plato acknowledges in Book V of The Republic.
In a State dominated by the Platonic philosophical rationality, poetry and all its traditional meanings would only continue to play a formative role if they could be redefined. Therefore, it is not entirely true that Plato simply expels poets from his Republic, as is commonly said. Hence why Plato treats these as a set that shares one same nature: It seems clear that philosophy feels more threatened in its role of speaking the truth by an art of the word such as poetry, which can arm itself with seductive garnishes that envelop logos and deviate it from its commitment to truth.
All the other forms of expression, such as figures, colors, and sounds are competitors to philosophy, but with a lower threat potential. It is only within this philosophical and educational context that the Platonic criticism of poetry becomes understandable. It is a matter, to a lesser degree, of refusing poetry and, more precisely, refusing a crystalized image of poetry-making and its political-educative role.
The poet, with his linguistic resources, is also a dangerous distraction against logical reason in its search of truth. It is in the name of philosophical truth as the guide of human education that Plato will censor poetry and its fabulating potential. The poetic word reveals both falseness and truth. Therefore, it is up to philosophy to filter out falseness and avoid, particularly in early education, that by way of amusement and distraction, children be educated according to values that can harm the characters the polis needs if it is to be just.
Because the polis that Plato intends and imagines does not exist, he fashions it in reasoning. Thus, it will also be necessary to plan the educative conditions that can build the types of man that will make it possible.
In this context, both the existing art and its place in the education of the equally existing polis are redimensioned in order to avoid the vices already known, and create a new situation in accordance with, and subordinated to, philosophic rationality. Fabulation and fiction represent a particular risk to those who are still incapable of a judgment according to which truth can be discerned from falseness, appearance from reality, as with the children who are to be properly educated for the new polis.
Ultimately and decisively, the philosopher is the only who strictly discerns sensible appearance from intelligible essence. Hence why he is qualified to censor poetic falseness and select truth-bearing elements according to the educational stage of each member of the polis.
As for the other citizens, because they lack philosophical discernment, they are to be spared of vicious contacts with the seductive poetic falseness, lest they should fall for its charms, allow it to invade them, and once they are thus educated, their ethos can hardly be shifted towards goodness.
Existing and past poetic and artistic productions are to be censored and selected. The ones that do come into being in the city imagined by Plato should already be fitted to the principles of truth of the new policy. Certainly, poetic activity would then lack autonomy, freedom of creation, insofar as the subordination of poetry to ethic, moral, political and educational determinants is defended.
This can sound strange to our contemporaries, to whom art is a free, singular activity not subordinate to any values except strictly aesthetic ones. However, to Plato, in The Republic, art is an imitation in which the reality engendered can never present itself innocently, indifferently, or as a simple exercise of imagination that would invite receptors to experience possible ways of life, by taking them off their everyday routine and widening their horizons.