There is a definitive link between physical fitness and good health. health benefits to engaging in regular physical or fitness activity. At CrossFit, we see the clear connection between health and wellness and fitness. provides novel information regarding the relationship between physical fitness and PA. The importance of physical activity or fitness in predicting overweight Several health conditions and disorders have been attributed to being.
Overweight—here including obesity—was inversely related to physical activity. Similarly, all studies reported inverse relations between physical fitness and overweight. Mediator and moderator effects were detected in the interrelationship of BMI, fitness and physical activity. Overall, a distinction of excessive body weight as cause or effect of low levels of physical activity and fitness is lacking.
These results must be carefully interpreted given the lack of distinction between self-reported and objective physical activity and that studies analyzing the metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular disease were not considered.
The importance of physical activity or fitness in predicting overweight remains unknown. Physical activity, Cardiorespiratory fitness, Motor fitness, Overweight, Obesity, Adolescent, Youth, Cross-sectional studies, Longitudinal studies Background Overweight and obesity has been called a global epidemic by the World Health Organization [ 1 ].
The prevalence of overweight and obesity is especially dramatic in economically developed countries [ 2 ] and not only in adults but also in children and adolescents.
In accordance with the literature [ 5 - 9 ], the term overweight includes obesity in this review. Several health conditions and disorders have been attributed to being overweight in children and adolescents [ 10 ]. For instance, overweight children and adolescents are more likely to suffer from cardiovascular, metabolic, pulmonary, skeletal or psychosocial disorders [ 11 ].
Even if these conditions or disorders are not manifested during childhood, being overweight in childhood increases the risk of illness in adulthood [ 10 ]. Hence, it is critical to identify risk factors for overweight in children and adolescents and to address overweight during childhood and adolescence.
Being overweight may originate from many different factors ranging from environmental influences to genetic variations [ 12 ]. According to Bouchard et al.
Other important factors include lifestyle factors such as physical activity PAnonsmoking, high-quality diet, sedentary activities and normal weight [ 14 ]. Lifestyle factors are also important in the description of the obesogenic environment that is based on the four pillars family, sport and leisure time, eating behavior and social education [ 15 ]. Several epidemiological and intervention studies [ 1617 ] have identified the role of physical activity and physical fitness for overweight in children and adolescents, and hence we focused on the role of sport during leisure time.
Previous reviews [ 18 - 20 ] provided an overview of studies on the relationship either between physical activity and overweight or between fitness and overweight in children or adolescents.
On the contrary, PA levels are tracked from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to adulthood, with moderate to strong coefficients for cardiorespiratory fitness and strength in addition to PA and obesity [ 1112 ]. These findings suggest that poor physical fitness, inactive PA, and high cardiovascular disease risk are all tightly associated.
Adequate physical activities are significant bases for physical fitness in adolescents and young adults. Higher levels of PA, especially moderate-to-vigorous physical activity MVPAare significantly associated with improved fitness, such as body composition optimization, enhanced bone health, cardiopulmonary function improvement, and adiposity prevention in adolescents [ 13 ].
Recently, there have been studies focused on the relationship between fitness and PA levels in youth and school-aged children [ 101314 ].
From the perspective of life-span development, early childhood is a critical period to promote and establish positive health behaviors, with levels of PA and physical fitness status tracking from early childhood to adolescence, and will continuously reap lifelong benefit [ 15 ]. Early years provide a window of opportunity for children to develop fundamental motor skills FMS. These skills are considered the building blocks of more complex and specialized movements.
In preschool children, a new model has recently suggested a reciprocal and developmentally dynamic relationship between PA and motor skill competence, which could possibly be mediated by physical fitness to a significant degree [ 16 ], while other studies have described that PA is positively, although weakly, related to different motor skills in school and preschool children [ 101718 ].
Additionally, longitudinal studies have revealed that PA is positively associated with both motor skill and aerobic fitness at baseline and after longitudinal changes.
Baseline PA rather than the subsequently increased PA was an important determinant of aerobic fitness, indicating that the relationship between physical fitness and PA may be more interrelated in preschoolers than adolescents [ 10 ]. This relationship may be explained by preschoolers' dynamic growth and development. These findings inferred the benefits of being active from early childhood.10 Benefits Of Exercise On The Brain And Body - Why You Need Exercise
Children's fitness levels change in concert with habitual levels of PA, but the directionality of this relationship is unclear [ 19 ]. Low PA may be an underlying causes of declines in fitness [ 20 ]. Meanwhile, understanding the profound relationship between PA behaviors and physical fitness in early childhood is essential in the development of effective interventions for this group.
However, to our knowledge, little is known about the relationship between PA and physical fitness in preschool Chinese children. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to comprehensively investigate the cross-sectional relationship between objectively measured PA and physical fitness in a sample of preschool children in Shanghai.
Participants Ten kindergartens located in Yangpu and Baoshan districts of Shanghai were randomly selected and recruited to participate in the study between August and November After receiving the approval from the directors of 8 kindergartens 2 kindergartens withdrewparents' meetings were orderly organized in each kindergarten. Thus, a total of 3.
Measures and Procedures 2. Participants were allowed to remove the accelerometer while sleeping, showering, or swimming. Parents were instructed to help their children wear the accelerometer above the iliac crest of the right hip by an adjustable elastic belt.
For data to be considered valid, at least 3 days of recording 2 weekdays and 1 weekend day with a minimum of minutes of wear time per day was required.
Each second count over the specific cutoff was summarized in the corresponding intensity level group. Measurement of Physical Fitness Physical fitness measurements were conducted in preschool settings by trained research assistants according to the National Physical Fitness Measurement Standards Manual preschool children version [ 22 ].
In total, eight categories of physical fitness tests were chosen for our study five tests from the National Physical Fitness Measurement Standards Manual and three additional tests.
The TSFT, grip strength, tennis throwing, sit and reach test, and 20mSRT were chosen as they represent health-related fitness body composition, muscular strength, flexibility, and aerobic fitness. Meanwhile, the 10mSRT, standing long jump, and balance beam were selected because they represent some aspects of skill-related physical fitness agility, explosive strength, and balance. Each participant's triceps skinfold thickness TSFT was measured using a caliper, and scores were used to represent body fat percentage.
TSFT mm was measured by highly trained assistants following recommended protocols. Skinfold thickness measurements were performed by lifting a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat away from the underlying muscle and bone. The triceps skinfold was lifted parallel to the long axis of the body, midway on the back of the hanging freely upper arm.
All measurements were taken on the right side of the body. Muscular strength was assessed by two aspects: Grip strength was measured by a dynamometer twice for each child using their right hand in a standing position, per standardized protocol. We used only the maximum values kilograms obtained from participants' dominant right hands.
Upper limb and lumbar abdomen strength were measured by the tennis throwing test. Children were required to stand behind the baseline and throw tennis ball as far as possible two times.