Political Science and Other Social Sciences
In ancient times Political Science was defined as Political Philosophy. Political Science is the science of Politics -State, Government, Nation, all political. This article examines the relationships between political science and other social to other social sciences like history, sociology, philosophy, and psychology. The aim of this article is to discuss the relation between political philosophy and political science. The development of political science highlighted two main.
Hence, not only the ideas of the Muslim political philosophers but also many other jurists and ulama posed political ideas and theories. For example, the ideas of the Khawarij in the very early years of Islamic history on Khilafa and Ummahor that of Shia Islam on the concept of Imamah are considered proofs of political thought. The clashes between the Ehl-i Sunna and Shia in the 7th and 8th centuries had a genuine political character. Political thought was not purely rooted in theism, however.
Aristotleanism flourished as the Islamic Golden Age saw rise to a continuation of the peripaetic philosophers who implemented the ideas of Aristotle in the context of the Islamic world.
Abunaser, Avicenna and Ibn Rushd where part of this philosophical school who claimed that human reason surpassed mere coincidence and revelation. They believed, for example, that natural phenomena occurs because of certain rules made by godnot because god interfered directly unlike Al-Ghazali and his followers. In it, he details the role of the state in terms of political affairs i. The British philosopher-anthropologist Ernest Gellner considered Ibn Khaldun's definition of government" For Ibn Khaldun, government should be restrained to a minimum for as a necessary evil, it is the constraint of men by other men.
It had much in common with the Mutazilite Islamic thinking in that the Roman Catholics though subordinating philosophy to theology did not subject reason to revelation but in the case of contradictions, subordinated reason to faith as the Asharite of Islam.
The Scholastics by combining the philosophy of Aristotle with the Christianity of St. Augustine emphasized the potential harmony inherent in reason and revelation. Thomas Aquinas who helped reintroduce Aristotle 's works, which had only been transmitted to Catholic Europe through Muslim Spainalong with the commentaries of Averroes. Aquinas's use of them set the agenda, for scholastic political philosophy dominated European thought for centuries even unto the Renaissance. Magna Cartaviewed by many as a cornerstone of Anglo-American political liberty, explicitly proposes the right to revolt against the ruler for justice sake.
Other documents similar to Magna Carta are found in other European countries such as Spain and Hungary. While the Middle Ages did see secular politics in practice under the rule of the Holy Roman Empirethe academic field was wholly scholastic and therefore Christian in nature. That work, as well as The Discoursesa rigorous analysis of the classical perioddid much to influence modern political thought in the West. A minority including Jean-Jacques Rousseau interpreted The Prince as a satire meant to be given to the Medici after their recapture of Florence and their subsequent expulsion of Machiavelli from Florence.
At any rate, Machiavelli presents a pragmatic and somewhat consequentialist view of politics, whereby good and evil are mere means used to bring about an end—i. Thomas Hobbeswell known for his theory of the social contractgoes on to expand this view at the start of the 17th century during the English Renaissance. Although neither Machiavelli nor Hobbes believed in the divine right of kings, they both believed in the inherent selfishness of the individual.
It was necessarily this belief that led them to adopt a strong central power as the only means of preventing the disintegration of the social order. During the Enlightenment period, new theories about what the human was and is and about the definition of reality and the way it was perceived, along with the discovery of other societies in the Americas, and the changing needs of political societies especially in the wake of the English Civil Warthe American Revolutionthe French Revolutionand the Haitian Revolution led to new questions and insights by such thinkers as Thomas HobbesJohn LockeMontesquieu and Jean-Jacques Rousseau.
These theorists were driven by two basic questions: These fundamental questions involved a conceptual distinction between the concepts of "state" and "government. The term "government" would refer to a specific group of people who occupied the institutions of the state, and create the laws and ordinances by which the people, themselves included, would be bound. This conceptual distinction continues to operate in political sciencealthough some political scientists, philosophers, historians and cultural anthropologists have argued that most political action in any given society occurs outside of its state, and that there are societies that are not organized into states that nevertheless must be considered in political terms.
As long as the concept of natural order was not introduced, the social sciences could not evolve independently of theistic thinking.
Since the cultural revolution of the 17th century in England, which spread to France and the rest of Europe, society has been considered subject to natural laws akin to the physical world. However, the enlightenment was an outright attack on religion, particularly Christianity. After Voltaire, religion would never be the same again in France.
Political Science and Other Social Sciences
As well, there was no spread of this doctrine within the New World and the advanced civilizations of the AztecMayaIncaMohicanDelawareHuron and especially the Iroquois. The Iroquois philosophy in particular gave much to Christian thought of the time and in many cases actually inspired some of the institutions adopted in the United States: In it Locke proposes a state of nature theory that directly complements his conception of how political development occurs and how it can be founded through contractual obligation.
Locke stood to refute Sir Robert Filmer 's paternally founded political theory in favor of a natural system based on nature in a particular given system.
The theory of the divine right of kings became a passing fancy, exposed to the type of ridicule with which John Locke treated it. Unlike Machiavelli and Hobbes but like Aquinas, Locke would accept Aristotle's dictum that man seeks to be happy in a state of social harmony as a social animal.
Unlike Aquinas's preponderant view on the salvation of the soul from original sinLocke believes man's mind comes into this world as tabula rasa. For Locke, knowledge is neither innate, revealed nor based on authority but subject to uncertainty tempered by reason, tolerance and moderation.The Relationship between Science and Philosophy
According to Locke, an absolute ruler as proposed by Hobbes is unnecessary, for natural law is based on reason and seeking peace and survival for man. Industrialization and the Modern Era[ edit ] The Marxist critique of capitalism—developed with Friedrich Engels —was, alongside liberalism and fascism, one of the defining ideological movements of the twentieth century.
The industrial revolution produced a parallel revolution in political thought. Urbanization and capitalism greatly reshaped society.
During this same period, the socialist movement began to form. In the midth century, Marxism was developed, and socialism in general gained increasing popular support, mostly from the urban working class.
Without breaking entirely from the past, Marx established principles that would be used by future revolutionaries of the 20th century namely Vladimir LeninMao ZedongHo Chi Minhand Fidel Castro.
Though Hegel 's philosophy of history is similar to Immanuel Kant 's, and Karl Marx 's theory of revolution towards the common good is partly based on Kant's view of history—Marx declared that he was turning Hegel's dialectic, which was "standing on its head", "the right side up again". In addition, the various branches of anarchismwith thinkers such as Mikhail BakuninPierre-Joseph Proudhon or Peter Kropotkinand syndicalism also gained some prominence.
In the Anglo-American world, anti-imperialism and pluralism began gaining currency at the turn of the 20th century. The Russian Revolution of and similar, albeit less successful, revolutions in many other European countries brought communism —and in particular the political theory of Leninismbut also on a smaller level Luxemburgism gradually —on the world stage. At the same time, social democratic parties won elections and formed governments for the first time, often as a result of the introduction of universal suffrage.
In continental Europe, on the other hand, the postwar decades saw a huge blossoming of political philosophy, with Marxism dominating the field. Communism remained an important focus especially during the s and s. Colonialism and racism were important issues that arose. In general, there was a marked trend towards a pragmatic approach to political issues, rather than a philosophical one.
Much academic debate regarded one or both of two pragmatic topics: The rise of feminismLGBT social movements and the end of colonial rule and of the political exclusion of such minorities as African Americans and sexual minorities in the developed world has led to feminist, postcolonialand multicultural thought becoming significant.
Political philosophy - Wikipedia
This led to a challenge to the social contract by philosophers Charles W. Mills in his book The Racial Contract and Carole Pateman in her book The Sexual Contract that the social contract excluded persons of colour and women respectively.
In Anglo-American academic political philosophy, the publication of John Rawls 's A Theory of Justice in is considered a milestone. Rawls used a thought experimentthe original positionin which representative parties choose principles of justice for the basic structure of society from behind a veil of ignorance.
Rawls also offered a criticism of utilitarian approaches to questions of political justice. Robert Nozick 's book Anarchy, State, and Utopiawhich won a National Book Awardresponded to Rawls from a libertarian perspective and gained academic respectability for libertarian viewpoints.
Most of these took elements of Marxist economic analysis, but combined them with a more cultural or ideological emphasis. Along somewhat different lines, a number of other continental thinkers—still largely influenced by Marxism—put new emphases on structuralism and on a "return to Hegel ". Within the post- structuralist line though mostly not taking that label are thinkers such as Gilles DeleuzeMichel FoucaultClaude Lefortand Jean Baudrillard. The Situationists were more influenced by Hegel; Guy Debordin particular, moved a Marxist analysis of commodity fetishism to the realm of consumption, and looked at the relation between consumerism and dominant ideology formation.
Another debate developed around the distinct criticisms of liberal political theory made by Michael WalzerMichael Sandel and Charles Taylor.
The liberal - communitarian debate is often considered valuable for generating a new set of philosophical problems, rather than a profound and illuminating clash of perspective. Bell argue that, contra liberalism, communities are prior to individuals and therefore should be the center of political focus. Communitarians tend to support greater local control as well as economic and social policies which encourage the growth of social capital.
Relationship between Political Science and other Discipline
Compared to it, Political Science studies both political facts and values but gives primary importance to the study of facts i. It also studies political values of each society and state of the world, but such a study enjoys only a limited importance in the study of Political Science.
In contemporary times Political Science is being built as a science of politics and not as a philosophy of state. In ancient times Political Science was defined as Political Philosophy. Political Science is the science of Politics -State, Government, Nation, all political institutions and political relations i. While studying the concepts of state, government, political institutions, constitutions, law, rights, freedom and political reforms, Political Science makes a normative study of all these concepts.
Political Science seeks to answer such questions as: What is the best State?
What should the state do and what it should not do? Which are best laws and policies? What social and political reforms should be introduced by the State?
Which is the best form of government? What is the right and ideal political conduct? While answering these questions, Political Science enters the realm of Philosophy. It depends on philosophy for finding answers to these normative questions. However, in contemporary times, Political Science is defined as the science and not philosophy of state, government and politics.
It is held to be an empirical science of politics and not a normative philosophy of State. Political Science is projected as a science and not as a philosophy. Philosophy involves a normative study of Human Conduct and Relations and which includes a study of State and Human Political Relations: Philosophy is the study of what is good and bad?