Chloride and sodium relationship

chloride and sodium relationship

A statistical analysis of the data to be presented in this paper, however, indicates that there is a significant correlation between sodium chloride intake and the. Download scientific diagram | Relationship between chloride and sodium concentration. from publication: Nitrate in drinking water: A major polluting component. Sodium and chloride — major electrolytes of the fluid compartment outside of .. have provided evidence of a relationship between sodium consumption and.

Regulation of Electrolytes Your body is pretty good at regulating electrolyte concentrations, which prevents them from dropping too low or getting too high. This close regulation is likely because electrolytes are so important. Besides the role the three electrolytes share in maintaining a proper balance of fluids, we see that sodium and potassium are important for proper nervous system function, and potassium is important for proper heart function.


Thirst is a mechanism that your body uses to regulate electrolyte balance. For example, in the traditional American diet, we tend to ingest a lot of sodium combined with chloride.

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In science, we refer to this as sodium chloride, but in your kitchen, you call it table salt. When you eat a lot of salty foods, your thirst is stimulated in hopes that you will increase your water intake to match the increased electrolyte intake.

Yet, when it comes to regulating all three of these electrolytes, nothing compares to your kidneys, which are the primary regulators of electrolyte concentrations in your body.


Basically, when your intake of sodium, potassium and chloride is low, your kidneys do not let as many of these electrolytes leave your body through urine.

If your intake is high, then excretion by the kidneys increases. Deficiency Most healthy individuals do not have difficulty maintaining sufficient amounts of electrolytes in the body. This is partly due to the efficient regulation by the kidneys, but also due to the fact that sodium and chloride are plentiful in our diet. There are also sources of potassium found in all of the food groups, particularly in fruits and vegetables.

chloride and sodium relationship

However, certain conditions can lead to an electrolyte deficiency in which any one or all of the electrolytes are depleted. There is considerable evidence that salt sensitivity is modifiable. The rise in blood pressure from increased sodium chloride intake is blunted in the setting of a diet that is high in potassium or that is low in fat, and rich in minerals; nonetheless, a dose-response relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure still persists.

chloride and sodium relationship

The adverse effects of higher levels of sodium intake on blood pressure provide the scientific rationale for setting the Tolerable Upper Intake Level UL. Because the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure is progressive and continuous without an apparent threshold, it is difficult to precisely set a UL, especially because other environmental factors weight, exercise, potassium intake, dietary pattern, and alcohol intake and genetic factors also affect blood pressure.

For adults, a UL of 2.


In dose-response trials, this level was commonly the next level above the AI that was tested. It should be noted that the UL is not a recommended intake and, as with other ULs, there is no benefit to consuming levels above the AI.

In general terms, salt sensitivity is expressed as either the reduction in blood pressure in response to a lower salt intake or the rise in blood pressure in response to sodium loading. Salt sensitivity differs among subgroups of the population and among individuals within a subgroup. These groups also experience an especially high incidence of blood pressure-related cardiovascular disease. In contrast, for individuals who are unacclimatized to prolonged physical activity in a hot environment, their needs may exceed the UL because of sodium sweat losses.

It is well-recognized that the current intake of sodium for most individuals in the United States and Canada greatly exceeds both the AI and UL. Progress in achieving a reduced sodium intake will likely be incremental and will require changes in individual behavior towards salt consumption, replacement of high salt foods with lower salt versions, increased collaboration of the food industry with public health officials, and a broad spectrum of additional research.

The latter includes research designed to develop reduced sodium food products while maintaining flavor, texture, consumer acceptability, and low cost. Approximately 95 percent of the total sodium content of the body is found in extracellular fluid. Sodium is also an important determinant of the membrane potential of cells and the active transport of molecules across cell membranes.

The concentration of sodium within the cell is typically less than 10 percent of that outside cell membranes, and an active, energy-dependent process is required to maintain this concentration gradient. Chloride, in association with sodium i.

chloride and sodium relationship

Physiology of Absorption and Metabolism Sodium and chloride ions are typically consumed as sodium chloride. The majority of ingested sodium chloride is excreted in the urine, provided that sweating is not excessive Holbrook et al. This phenomenon occurs due to the capacity of the normal human kidney to filter some 25, mmol of sodium each day and to reabsorb, by extremely precise mechanisms, 99 percent or more of the filtered load Valtin and Schafer, There are various systems and hormones that influence sodium and chloride balance, including the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, the sympathetic nervous system, atrial natriuretic peptide, the kallikrein-kinin system, various intrarenal mechanisms, and other factors that regulate renal and medullary blood flow.

Angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, regulates the proximal tubule of the nephron to promote sodium and chloride retention and also to stimulate the release of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex Valtin and Schafer, Aldosterone promotes the renal reabsorption of sodium in the distal tubule of the nephron by mineralocorticoid receptor-mediated exchange for hydrogen and potassium ions.

With reduced salt intake, reduced blood volume, or reduced blood pressure, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis is stimulated.

chloride and sodium relationship

When the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is less responsive, as with advancing age, there is a greater blood pressure reduction from a reduced intake of sodium chloride Cappuccio et al. Atrial natriuretic peptide ANP is released in response to elevated blood volume and serves as a counter-regulatory system to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

ANP decreases the release of renin and therefore the release of angiotensin II and aldosterone and increases the glomerular filtration rate. These actions contribute to reductions in blood volume and blood pressure. The sympathetic nervous system is another major regulatory sys- Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Similar to the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, the sympathetic nervous system is activated during sodium depletion and suppressed during sodium excess Luft et al.

Potassium Chloride-Sodium Chloride - Side Effects, Dosage, Interactions - Drugs - Everyday Health

Intrarenal mechanisms are also important for sodium and chloride homeostasis. These mechanisms include locally released prostaglandins, kinins, angiotensin, endothelial relaxing factor, and other less-well defined factors. Other Forms of Sodium Sodium is consumed as sodium chloride saltsodium bicarbonate, and as sodium in a variety of forms provided in processed foods e.