Femoral condyles - OrthopaedicsOne Articles - OrthopaedicsOne
Consequently, the rounded ends, or condyles, of the femur and tibia that meet at the knee are massive. The rounded ends of the tibia move forward and. The main function of the femur is to transmit forces from the tibia to the of the medial and lateral condyles, which articulate with the tibia and. Distally, the femur exhibits five key regions. Two rounded regions, termed the medial and lateral condyles, articulate with the tibia at the most anterior projection.
Many strong ligaments surround the joint capsule of the knee to reinforce its structure and hold its bones in the proper alignment. On the anterior surface of the knee, the patella is held in place by the patellar ligament, which extends from the inferior border of the patella to the tibial tuberosity of the tibia. Posteriorly, the oblique popliteal ligament and arcuate popliteal ligament join the femur to the tibia and fibula of the lower leg. Along the medial side of the knee, the medial collateral ligament MCL connects the medial side of the femur to the tibia and prevents forces applied to the lateral side of the knee from moving the knee medially.
Likewise, the lateral collateral ligament LCL binds the lateral side of the femur to the fibula and prevents forces applied to the medial side of the knee from moving the knee laterally. Two internal ligaments — the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments — also help to maintain the proper alignment of the knee.
The anterior cruciate ligament ACL is the most anterior of these internal ligaments and extends obliquely from the inner surface of the lateral condyle of the femur to the anterior intercondylar space of the tibia.
The ACL plays an important role in preventing hyperextension of the knee by limiting the anterior movement of the tibia. The posterior cruciate ligament of the knee joint is attached to the lower and front part of the medial wall of the fossa, and the anterior cruciate ligament to an impression on the upper and back part of its lateral wall.
Epicondyles Each condyle is surmounted by an elevation, the epicondyle. The medial epicondyle is a large convex eminence to which the tibial collateral ligament of the knee-joint is attached.
At its upper part is the adductor tubercle, already referred to, and behind it is a rough impression which gives origin to the medial head of the gastrocnemius.
Anatomy of the Knee Joint | Paley Orthopedic & Spine Institute
The lateral epicondyle, smaller and less prominent than the medial, gives attachment to the fibular collateral ligament of the knee joint. Directly below it is a small depression from which a smooth well-marked groove curves obliquely upward and backward to the posterior extremity of the condyle.
This groove is separated from the articular surface of the condyle by a prominent lip across which a second, shallower groove runs vertically downward from the depression.
In the fresh state these grooves are covered with cartilage.
The popliteus arises from the depression; its tendon lies in the oblique groove when the knee is flexed and in the vertical groove when the knee is extended. Above and behind the lateral epicondyle is an area for the origin of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius, above and to the medial side of which the plantaris arises.
Articular surface The articular surface of the lower end of the femur occupies the anterior, inferior, and posterior surfaces of the condyles.
The patellar tendon also known as the patellar ligament is a downwards continuation of the quadriceps tendon. It extends from the patella down inferiorly down to the tibia. Ligaments of the Knee Without ligaments, the bones of the knee will be very loose. Ligaments tie the femur to the tibia and provide stability. Ligaments permit flexion bending the knee and extension straightening the knee motions of the knee.
In the anatomy of the knee, there are 4 ligaments that hold the knee together. It prevents the tibia from moving excessively forward with respect to the femur. The ACL extends from the posterior lateral femur through the intercondylar notch down to the anterior medial tibia.
It prevents the tibia from moving excessively backward with respect to the femur.
The PCL extends from the anterior medial femur down to the posterior lateral tibia. Together with the Lateral Cruciate Ligament it prevents excessive motions of the knee joint by limiting joint mobility in the side-to-side direction.
Together with the MCL it prevents excessive motions of the knee joint by limiting joint mobility in the side-to-side direction. Rough illustration of knee flexion and extension in knee anatomy Source Muscles of the Knee Muscles in the anatomy of the knee include quadriceps and hamstrings muscles.
The quadriceps sits directly on top on the anterior side of the femur. They help in the extension motion of the knee. It is made up of 4 groups of muscles: In the knee anatomy, the hamstring muscles run down the posterior side of the femur.
They are involved in flexion of the knee knee bends when the hamstring muscles contract. It is composed mainly of 5 muscle groups: Animated Tutorial on the Anatomy of the knee Related.